In today's world, the people can park there hard earned money in banks and financial institutions without worrying much about the safety of the invested funds. We all are enjoying the full benefits by utilizing the various schemes offered by various banking institutions present in the country which our forefathers were unheard of. In the earlier years, there was no regular system which permitted people to safeguard the money and mostly used to treasure the money in their own houses.
The concept of the banking system in India was developed during the British era. The British East India Company has to its credit establishing three banks in India namely Bank of Bengal during 1809, Bank of Bombay in 1840 and Bank of Madras in 1843. All these three banks were amalgamated and the Imperial Bank came into existence which was further taken over by SBI during 1955.
Now let's understand the concept of a bank.
What is a Bank?
A Bank is a financial institution which is licensed to receive the deposits and lend loans to the needy. The banks also perform other functions in the form of currency exchange, wealth management, financial service, safe deposit boxes and so on.
The main function of a bank apart from receiving deposits and lending money to businesses and individuals involves disbursing payments, safeguarding money and investing the funds in securities.
Categorization of Banking Sector
In India, the banking sector is categorized into two broad categories namely scheduled and non-scheduled banks. The scheduled banks come under the second schedule of the Reserve Bank of India Act of 1934.
The list of scheduled banks in India are further categorized into
• Nationalized Banks
• Foreign Banks
• Regional Rural Banks
• State Bank of India and its associates and
• Other Private Sector Banks
What is a Nationalized Bank?
Nationalization refers to the transfer of public sector assets to be operated or owned by the state or central government. In India, the banks which were previously functioning under private sector were transferred to the public sector by the act of nationalization and thus the nationalized banks came into existence.
The history of banking in India states that the post-independence, the Government of India initiated various measures to play an active role in the economic development of the nation which resulted in the establishment of the Reserve Bank of India in April 1935 and later nationalized the same during 1949 under the terms of the Reserve Bank of India Act of 1948 and another measure is the nationalization of banks in India.
Post-independence, the Indian government adopted a planned economic development for the betterment of the country. The government of India under the leadership of the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi issued an ordinance to nationalize 14 largest commercial banks in India with effect from July 19, 1969, under the regulatory authority of the Reserve Bank of India. These 14 banks contained up to 85 percent of bank deposits in the country and most of them were privately owned. During 1980, 6 more commercial banks followed the suit and came under nationalized cover. Till the 1990s, their growth grew at a snail's pace of around 4% annually.
During early 1990's, the government of India adopted the policy of liberalization and licensed a small number of private banks in the country which helped for the rapid growth of the economy of India.
Reasons for the Nationalization of Banks
• For Social Welfare
• For Developing Banking Habits
• For Expansion of Banking Sector
• For Controlling Private Monopolies
• To Reduce Regional Imbalance
• For Prioritizing Sector Lending
List of nationalized banks in India
The Central Bank of India - RBI, in its official website has listed the following 19 banks as nationalized banks.
|Bank Names||Year of Nationalization|
|Bank of Baroda||1969|
|Bank of India||1969|
|Bank of Maharashtra||1969|
|Central Bank of India||1969|
|Indian Overseas Bank||1969|
|Oriental Bank of Commerce||1980|
|Punjab & Sind Bank||1969|
|Punjab National Bank||1969|
|Union Bank of India||1969|
|United Bank of India||1969|
The major nationalized banks in India are State Bank of India (SBI), Punjab National Bank (PNB), Bank of Baroda (BOB), Canara Bank, Union Bank of India and so on.
State Bank of India
The State Bank of India is popularly known as SBI was formed when the Bank of Madras merged into two other presidency banks - the Bank of Calcutta and the Bank of Bombay in January 1921, to form the Imperial Bank of India. The imperial bank of India was later renamed as the State Bank of India on July 1, 1955, when the government of India acquired 60% stake in Imperial Bank of India.
The State Bank of India is the biggest public-sector based bank in India with a market share of 23% in terms of assets, apart from holding a share of 1/4th in the total loans and deposits markets.
The State Bank of India is not included under the list of nationalized banks as it was already a state-owned financial institution in the country at the time of its inception.
Its headquarters is located in Mumbai, the financial capital of India.
The State Bank of India's Net Sales Turnover for March 2018 stood at Rs 2,20,499.31 crores as against Rs 1,75,518.24 crores during March 2017, up by 25.63%.
The bank's Non-banking subsidiaries in India include:
• SBI Capital Markets Ltd
• SBI Funds Management Pvt Ltd
• SBI Global Factors Ltd
• SBI Cards & Payments Services Pvt Ltd
• SBI DFHI Ltd
• SBI General Insurance Company Limited
• SBI Pension Funds Pvt Ltd
State Bank of India Headquarters Address
State Bank of India
State Bank Bhavan,
Madame Cama Road,
Andhra Bank is one of the medium-sized public-sector bank present in India which started its operations in the year 1923. The government of India owns 63.97% of the bank's stake in the form of share capital. It has a network of 2803 branches in the country. The total income of the bank touched Rs 20,346.60 crore in March 2018.
The head office of Andhra Bank is situated in Hyderabad.
Andhra Bank Headquarters Address
Dr. Pattabhi Bhavan,
No. 5-9-11 Saifabad,
Hyderabad -500 004
The Allahabad Bank was initiated during 1865, in Allahabad by a group of Europeans. Its headquarters is located in Kolkata. it is one of the oldest joint stock bank present in India, withstanding turbulent times since inception. The bank's business touched INR 3.8 trillion during 2017-2018. It has more than 3245 branches spread across the country.
The headquarters of Allahabad Bank is situated in Kolkata.
Allahabad Bank Headquarters Address
No. 2, N. S. Road,
Kolkata -700 001
Bank of Baroda
The Bank of Baroda was founded during pre-independence days under the leadership of Maharaja of Baroda, Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III during 1908. The Bank of Baroda was nationalized during 1969 by the government of India. The bank's total assets crossed Rs 3.58 trillion making it the second biggest Indian bank based on the assets.
Its headquarters is situated in Vadodara (which was previously known as Baroda), Gujarat.
The bank's corporate office is in Mumbai, Maharashtra.
Bank of Baroda Headquarters Address
Bank of Baroda
R C Dutt Road,
Baroda - 390007
Bank of India
The Bank of India came into existence during 1906 when a group of illustrious businessmen came together to start a bank. The bank has a network of 5100 branches spread across the length and breadth of India as on January 2017. The bank's headquarters is situated in Mumbai. The bank was started with an initial paid-up capital of Rs 5 million ($75,000) and just 50 employees with one office in Mumbai.
Its headquarters is located in Nariman Point, Mumbai.
Bank of India Headquarters Address
Bank of India
C - 5,"G" Block,
Bandra Kurla Complex,
Mumbai - 400 051.
Bank of Maharashtra
Bank of Maharashtra has the largest network of branches in the state of Maharashtra. The bank has an estimated 15 million customers across the globe. The bank was started in the year 1935 in Pune by V.G. Kale and D.K. Sathe. It obtained the status of Schedule Bank during 1944. The bank gained autonomous status in the year 1998 which has led to the reduction of interference of government bureaucracy in its internal affairs and the decision-making process.
Bank of Maharashtra's head office is located in Pune. During 2016, the bank's total business crossed Rs 2.50 lakh crore.
Bank of Maharashtra Headquarters Address
Bank of Maharashtra
Canara Hindu Permanent Fund was established by Ammembal Subba Rao Pai in Mangalore during 1906. It was later renamed as Canara Bank Limited in the year 1910 during its incorporation. The bank is one of the oldest public sector banks in the country. The government of India nationalized Canara bank during 1969 making it one of the biggest public sector banks owned by the government of India in the country.
The bank has a chain of 6639 branches and 10600 ATM's across various locations in India. The Canara Bank established an international division abroad for the first time as early as 1976. As of now, the bank has its branches located in different foreign locations across the globe with the prominent ones situated in South Africa, Dubai, New York, Doha, London, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Bahrain, Tanzania, Moscow.
The net worth of the bank improvised during fiscal 2018 and was recorded at Rs 524,846.98 crore as against Rs 495,266.34 crore during fiscal 2017, up by 5.97%.
Its head office is located in Bengaluru, Karnataka.
Canara Bank Headquarters Address
No.112, JC Road,
Karnataka - 560002
Central Bank of India
The Central Bank of India was established during 1911, by Sir Sorabji Pochkhanawala. By 1918, the bank established a branch in Hyderabad. The bank has a network of 4715 branches and 5319 ATM's spread across the country. The bank was instrumental in creating the first Indian exchange bank known as the Central Exchange Bank of India during 1936 which started its operations in London city. The bank is considered to be the first commercial Indian Bank which was completely possessed and handled by Indians. The bank has many satellite offices which are spread across the length and breadth of the country.
Central Bank of India's headquarters is situated in Nariman Point, Mumbai.
The bank's deposits declined to Rs 294,838.86 crores in March 2018 from the previous record of Rs 296,671.19 crores during March 2017. The borrowings of the bank stood at Rs 5,706.12 crore as on March 2018.
Central Bank of India Headquarters Address
Central Bank of India
Chander Mukhi, Nariman Point
Mumbai - 400 021
Corporation Bank is headquartered in Mangalore, India. The Corporation Bank was started by Khan Bahadur Haji Abdullah Haji Kasim Saheb Bahadur, considered as the founder president. The bank began its journey in 1906, with an initial seed capital of Rs 5,000. It is one of the oldest banks in India. The bank to its distinction has a structure of 2440 absolutely automated Core Banking Solutions (CBS) branches expanded across the country. The bank is one of the prominent public sector banks in India.
The Corporation bank witnessed a decline in the deposits during March 2018 at Rs 183,315.95 crores as against Rs 220,559.62 crores in March 2017.
Corporation Bank Headquarters Address
Mangaladevi Temple Road,
MANGALORE - 575 001
The Dena Bank's revenue stood at INR 10645.73 crores in 2016. The bank was formed by the family of Devkaran Nanjee in the year 1938 under the name Devkaran Nanjee Banking Company Ltd. The company was renamed as Dena Bank in 1939 during the time of its incorporation as a public company. The bank to its reputation had launched a bond issue during November 1996, to the tune of Rs 92.13 crores. It also made a maiden public issue during the same year worth Rs 180 crore in India.
The total number of employees of the bank as on 2016 stands at 13,906.
For the first time in India, the bank issued a credit card in the rural sector in India under the name 'Dena Krishi Sakh Patra' (DKSP). The deposits of the bank slid to Rs 106,130.14 crore in March 2018 from Rs 113,942.77 crore in March 2017. The investments of the bank also dipped slightly and stood at Rs 37,609.55 crores in March 2018, down from the previous Rs 39,737.23 crore during March 2017.
It is headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra.
The bank offers several online services to its esteemed customers apart from providing government initiatives across all its branches which includes Atal Pension Yojana, Suraksha Bandhan, Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana, Prime Minister Suraksha Bima Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana and PM Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana.
Dena Bank Headquarters Address
C-10, G Block,
Mumbai- 400 051
The Indian Bank came into existence during 1907. It is currently serving the customers as a nationalized bank in India. The bank's business rose and reached Rs 3.64 lakh crores during March 2018. The bank was successful in securing the Information Systems & Security processes certified with ISO 27001:2013. It has two subsidiary companies namely IndBank Housing Ltd and IndBank Merchant Banking Services Ltd.
In June 2018, the business of the bank crossed the milestone target to reach Rs 3,00,000 crore.
The deposits of the Indian Bank swelled up to the tune of Rs 2,08,294.22 crore during March 2018 as against Rs 1,82,509.28 crore in March 2017, up by 14.12 percent. The borrowings of the bank surged up to touch Rs 19,760.17 crore in March 2018, up by 56.37% as against Rs 12,636.89 crore during March 2017. The cash and balances of the Indian Bank with the Reserve Bank of India double up during March 2018 and stood at Rs 10,501.60 crore as against Rs 5,588.70 crore in March 2017.
Indian Bank Headquarters Address
Corporate Office, PB No: 5555,
254-260, Avvai Shanmugam Salai,
Chennai - 600014
Indian Overseas Bank
The Indian Overseas Bank has a network of more than 3400 domestic branches spread across length and breadth of the country. The bank was formed by Thiru M. Chidambaram Chettyar during the year 1937 with an aim to encourage foreign exchange operations and overseas banking transactions in the country.
The headquarters of the bank is located in Chennai. It has an exclusive 1150 branches located in various places in the state of Tamil Nadu. Apart from this, it has branches in overseas locations situated in Seoul, Colombo, Bangkok and Singapore and representative offices in Dubai, Guangzhou, and Vietnam.
The bank's deposits surged up for fiscal 2018 and were recorded at Rs 216,831.81 crore as on March 2018 against Rs 211,342.63 crore as on March 2017. The bank is successful in achieving 100% networking status as well as 100% Core Banking Solution status for all its branches.
Indian Overseas Bank Headquarters Address
Indian Overseas Bank
No. 763 Anna Salai,
Tamil Nadu- 600002
Oriental Bank of Commerce
The Oriental Bank of Commerce was established in 1943, in Lahore before independence. The bank was established by Rai Bahadur Lala Ji Sohan Lala Ji. The Oriental bank's net income touched the mark of Rs 20181.25 crore as on March 2018 which made it occupy the seventh position amongst the largest public sector bank in the country.The bank has introduced several ranges of banking products to benefit its customers and it includes loans, savings accounts, deposit accounts, credit card, debit card, ATM facilities, insurance products, mobile banking, internet banking, call center, self-banking halls and so on.
The bank launched a project by name Grameen Project, to improve common people's participation in the process of planning with a sole aim to tackle the poverty problem. The project mainly aims to reduce the poverty of the people and the same has been implemented in Dehradun District in Uttarakhand and in Hanumangarh District in Rajasthan. The main beneficiaries of this project are mostly women as the bank helps in providing training courses for these rural women to manufacture homemade products like jams, pickles and so on.
Oriental Bank of Commerce Headquarters Address
Oriental Bank of Commerce
Corporate Office Address: Plot No. 5,
Punjab and Sind Bank
The Punjab and Sind Bank's was established in 1908 and its headquarters is situated in New Delhi, India. The bank has 1554 branches in India. 623 branches of the bank are located in the state of Punjab alone. The total business of the bank touched Rs 1,51,511 crore in the year 2014-2015.
The bank was started by Bhai Vir Singh, Sir Sunder Singh Majitha and Sardar Tarlochan Singh on June 24, 1908. The bank was nationalized in the year 1960. The bank has sponsored a Regional Rural Bank by name Sutlej Gramin Bank. The deposits of the bank grew by a staggering 18.92% to touch Rs 101,726.17 crore in March 2018 as against Rs 85,540.16 crore in March 2017.
Punjab and Sind Bank Headquarters Address
Punjab and Sind Bank
Head Office: 21,
New Delhi 110 008.
Punjab National Bank
The Punjab National Bank famously known as PNB and it is a state-owned corporation which was established during1894. The bank has a special distinction of having been commenced solely with an Indian capital. The bank has witnessed major changes in the banking sector apart from withstanding turbulent testing times and has survived successfully to see the present day.
The Punjab National Bank was nationalized by the government of India during July 1969.
The Punjab National Bank head office is situated in New Delhi. It has more than 80 million customers and a network of 6,937 branches spread across India, with 10681 ATMs across 764 cities as of March 31, 2017. The bank has 84% stake in JSC(SB) PNB Bank which is located in Kazakhstan and JSC (SB) PNB has four branches.
PNB has a banking subsidiary situated in the United Kingdom with seven branches alone in the British countryside. Apart from this it also has branches located in Kabul, Kowloon, Dubai and Hong Kong. The deposits of the bank edged during March 2018 to touch Rs 642,226.19 crores as against Rs 621,704.02 crores in March 2017, up by 3.30%.
Punjab National Bank Headquarters Address
Punjab National Bank
Corporate Office: Plot No 4,
New Delhi -110075
Syndicate Bank started its service during 1925 in Udupi situated in Dakshin Kannada district in the state of Karnataka. The bank was started with an initial capital of just Rs 8000. The bank's headquarters is located in the university town of Manipal, Karnataka. The bank has eight zonal offices across India with keen focus to improvise its administration and business.
The bank was started by T M A Pai, Upendra Pai and Vaman Kudva. At the time of initiation, it was known as Canara Industrial and Banking Syndicate Limited. The bank was nationalized in 1969, by the Government of India along with 13 other banks. The main objective of the bank was to extend financial assistance to local weavers. Over a period of time around 20 banks merged with the Canara Industrial and Banking Syndicate Limited. The bank's name was changed to the current name - Syndicate Bank during 1964 and its headquarters was moved to Manipal. The bank has its operations in both domestic as well as foreign countries.
The bank is having more than 3500 branches and all of them offer core banking e-services to its customers.
Syndicate Bank Headquarters Address
Head Office. Door No. 16/355 & 16/365A,
Manipal - 576 104,
Karnataka State (India).
The UCO Bank was established during 1943 by Ghanshyam Das Birla. It was earlier known as United Commercial Bank. The bank has more than 4000 service units and 49 zonal offices spread across India as on March 2017. Its headquarters is located in BTM Sarani, Kolkata.
Ghanshyam Das Birla one of the Indian Industrialist during the Quit India era conceived the idea of starting a commercial bank in India using the countries capital and management resources and thus the United Commercial Bank Limited came into existence with an issued capital of Rs 2 crores and a paid up capital of Rs 1 crore. Initially, Birla was the chairperson of the bank and the Board of Directors of the bank included eminent Indian personalities drawn from many fields. The bank opened 14 branches simultaneously across the country.
Post Second World War, the bank opened its branches in overseas. The Indian government nationalized the bank on July 19, 1969. During 1985, an act of Parliament changed the bank's name to UCO Bank as a Bangladeshi bank too had the same name United Commercial Bank, which created confusion, especially in the international banking arena.
The bank's profit for the year ending March 2018 declined to a new low and it reported a loss of Rs 4426.95 crore.
UCO Bank Headquarters Address
Head Office: 10,
B T M Sarani,
Kolkata - 700 001.
Union Bank of India
The Union Bank of India was founded in the year 1919 before India attained independence and it was inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi. The government of India nationalized the Union Bank of India in 1969 in a bid to review the economic scenario of the country. The bank is one of the biggest government-owned banks in the country. The governments share in the bank constitutes 63.44% of share capital. The bank was listed once on the Forbes 2000 and is estimated to have assets worth $13.45 billion.
The headquarters of the Union Bank of India is located in Mumbai, the financial capital of India.
The bank reported a surge in its total income which stood at Rs 37737.87 crore during March 2018 as against Rs 37624.58 crore during March 2017. The reserves and surplus are at Rs 23,928.20 crore as on March 2018 as against Rs 22,747.76 crore during March 2017. The bank reported loss of Rs (5,247.37) crore for fiscal 2018 compared to a Net Profit of Rs 555.21 crore for fiscal 2017.
Union Bank of India Headquarters Address
Union Bank Bhavan
No.239, Vidhan Bhavan Marg,
Mumbai - 400 021,
United Bank of India
The United Bank of India's headquarters is situated in Kolkata. The bank came into existence after the merger of four Bengali Banks in 1950, namely Comilla Banking Corporation, Bengal Central Bank, Comilla Union Bank and Hooghly Bank. The bank's net sales were recorded at Rs 9,427.91 crores during March 2017. The bank was nationalized during 1969 by the government of India.
The bank has regional offices and branches which are spread across the country. The bank has three full-fledged overseas branches located in Mumbai, Kolkata and New Delhi. During March 30, 2009, the Government of India approved to restructure the bank and invested in the bank's shares to the tune of Rs 2.5 billion and Rs 5.50 billion during the next fiscal year in the Tier - I Capital instruments.
The bank secured nod from SEBI to issue equity shares worth Rs 1,000 crore in the form on institutional placement during November 2017.
United Bank of India Headquarters Address
United Bank of India
Head Office. 11,
Hemant Basu Sarani,
Kolkata - 700001.
Vijaya Bank was established in 1931 in Mangalore, Karnataka. The bank was established on the auspicious day of Vijayadashami Day and hence the bank was named as 'Vijaya Bank'. The bank has a network of 2031 branches as on March 2017. It has 4000 customer touch points spread across the length and breadth of the country.
The bank's total business is more than Rs 2,29,000 crores as on March 2017.
The corporate head office of the Vijaya Bank is located in Bangalore. A.B. Shetty is the founder of the bank. During the great depression of 1927-1930, Shetty approached eminent Bunt personalities with an idea of starting a bank to provide credit facilities at a less rate of interest to farmers to enable them to cultivate their land and to prevent them from falling into the hands of money lenders. The bank was formed with a paid up capital of Rs 8,670, an initial authorized capital of Rs 5,00,000 and an issued capital of Rs 2,00,000 in 1931.
Vijaya Bank Headquarters Address
No.41/2, M G Road
BANGALORE - 560 001
Amalgamation of Vijaya Bank and Dena Bank with Bank of Baroda
The government of India had announced way back in September 2018, the merger of Vijaya Bank and Dena Bank with the Bank of Baroda (BoB) with an intention to create the third-largest lender in the country after SBI and ICICI Bank. According to the Scheme of Amalgamation of all the three banks, the shareholders of Vijaya Bank will get 402 equity shares of BoB for every 1,000 shares held. For Dena Bank, its shareholders will get 110 shares for every 1,000 shares of BoB.
As of now, the Dena Bank and Vijaya Bank has ceased their operations and has merged themselves with the Bank of Baroda with effect from April 1, 2019, making it the second-largest public sector bank (PSB) after the State Bank of India.
What does this merger mean for the customers of all three banks?
Post-merger, the operations and accounts held by Vijaya Bank and Dena will be transferred to the BoB. The customers of these two banks will get new passbooks, credit and debit cards, cheque book, new account numbers, customer IDs and so on.
Post-merger, after a change in the account number, the customers will subsequently have to get their details updated with the insurance companies, Income - Tax Department, etc.
Big Bank Mergers: Merger of 10 PSBs into 4
The government of India announced big bank mergers on August 30, 2019, intending to strengthen a sector struggling with a bad loan cleanup and to create lenders of global scale which can support the Indian economy which aspires to surge to $5 trillion by fiscal 2024. Accordingly, 10 state-owned banks have been consolidated to 4 public-sector banks (PSBs). The banks are amalgamated based on the use of same CBS platform (core banking solution used in the bank) which will help in quick realization of gains.
The Finance Minister, Nirmala Sitharaman stated that "We want to create next-generation banks." She added that "You need big banks with enhanced capacity to increase credit. You need banks with a strong national presence and global reach." The FM also noted that it has been proposed that there will be no downsizing of employees during the merger of banks.
With this, the total number of 27 Nationalized banks as it was during 2017 will come down to 12 PSU entities in the banking space, post-consolidation.
According to the scheme of merger, the banks which are likely to amalgamate includes:
1. Punjab National Bank, Oriental Bank of Commerce and United Bank
In this case, the Punjab National Bank (PNB) will be the anchor bank and this combination will be the second-largest public sector bank followed by SBI with a business of Rs 17.95 lakh crores and a branching network of 11,437 branches.
2. Canara Bank and Syndicate Bank
The two banks from South India will be merged with Canara Bank as the anchor bank, making it the fourth-largest public sector bank with a business of Rs 15.20 lakh crore. The combined bank's network in the country will have 10,342 branches.
3. Union Bank of India, Andhra Bank and Corporation Bank
The Union Bank of India will be the anchor bank, in this case, and the other two banks - Andhra and Corporation Bank will be merged with the Union Bank forming it the fifth largest public sector bank with a consolidated business size of Rs 14.59 lakh crore and 9,609 branches.
4. Indian Bank and Allahabad Bank
The Indian Bank will be the anchor bank and Allahabad Bank will be merged with it making it the seventh-largest public-sector bank with a consolidated business size of Rs 8.08 lakh crore and these two have a nationwide presence with strong networks in South, North and Eastern part of India.