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Accounting Policies of Tata Steel Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2017

1. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

The significant accounting policies applied by the Company in the preparation of its financial statements are listed below. Such accounting policies have been applied consistently to all the periods presented in these financial statements and in preparing the opening Ind AS Balance Sheet as at April 1, 2015 for the purpose of transition to Ind AS, unless otherwise indicated.

(a) Statement of compliance

In accordance with the notification issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, the Company has adopted Ind AS notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 with effect from April 1, 2016.

The transition from Previous GAAP to Ind AS has been accounted for in accordance with Ind AS 101 “First Time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards’; with April 1, 2015 being the transition date.

in accordance with Ind As 101 “First time adoption of Indian Accounting Standard”, the Company has presented a reconciliation from the presentation of financial statements under accounting standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (“Previous GAAP”) to Ind AS of total equity as at April 1, 2015 and March 31, 2016, total comprehensive income and cash flow for the year ended March 31, 2016.

(b) Basis of preparation

The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention with the exception of certain assets and liabilities that are required to be carried at fair values by Ind AS.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.

(c) Use of estimates and critical accounting judgements

In preparation of the financial statements, the Company makes judgements, estimates and assumptions about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The estimates and the associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

The estimates and the underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised and future periods affected.

Significant judgements and estimates relating to the carrying values of assets and liabilities include useful lives of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets, impairment of property, plant and equipment, intangible assets and investments, provision for employee benefits and other provisions, recoverability of deferred tax assets, commitments and contingencies.

(d) Property, plant and equipment

An item of property, plant and equipment is recognised as an asset if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company and its cost can be measured reliably. This recognition principle is applied to the costs incurred initially to acquire an item of property, plant and equipment and also to costs incurred subsequently to add to, replace part of, or service it. All other repair and maintenance costs, including regular servicing, are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as incurred. When a replacement occurs, the carrying value of the replaced part is de-recognised. Where an item of property, plant and equipment comprises major components having different useful lives, these components are accounted for as separate items.

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and impairment. Cost includes all direct costs and expenditures incurred to bring the asset to its working condition and location for its intended use. Trial run expenses (net of revenue) are capitalised. Borrowing costs incurred during the period of construction is capitalised as part of cost of the qualifying assets.

The gain or loss arising on disposal of an asset is determined as the difference between the sale proceeds and the carrying value of the asset, and is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

(e) Exploration for and evaluation of mineral resources

Expenditures associated with search for specific mineral resources are recognised as exploration and evaluation assets. The following expenditure comprises cost of exploration and evaluation assets:

- obtaining of the rights to explore and evaluate mineral reserves and resources including costs directly related to this acquisition

- researching and analysing existing exploration data

- conducting geological studies, exploratory drilling and sampling

- examining and testing extraction and treatment methods

- compiling pre-feasibility and feasibility studies

- activities in relation to evaluating the technical feasibility and commercial viability of extracting a mineral resource.

Administration and other overhead costs are charged to the cost of exploration and evaluation assets only if directly related to an exploration and evaluation project.

If a project does not prove viable, all irrecoverable exploration and evaluation expenditure associated with the project net of any related impairment allowances is written off to the statement of profit and loss.

The Company measures its exploration and evaluation assets at cost and classifies as property, plant and equipment or intangible assets according to the nature of the assets acquired and applies the classification consistently. To the extent that tangible asset is consumed in developing an intangible asset, the amount reflecting that consumption is capitalised as a part of the cost of the intangible asset.

As the asset is not available for use, it is not depreciated. All exploration and evaluation assets are monitored for indications of impairment. An exploration and evaluation asset is no longer classified as such when the technical feasibility and commercial viability of extracting a mineral resource are demonstrable and the development of the deposit is sanctioned by the management. The carrying value of such exploration and evaluation asset is reclassified to mining assets.

(f) Development expenditure for mineral reserves

Development is the establishment of access to mineral reserves and other preparations for commercial production. Development activities often continue during production and include:

- sinking shafts and underground drifts (often called mine development)

- making permanent excavations

- developing passageways and rooms or galleries

- building roads and tunnels and

- advance removal of overburden and waste rock.

Development (or construction) also includes the installation of infrastructure (e.g., roads, utilities and housing), machinery, equipment and facilities.

Development expenditure is capitalised and presented as part of mining assets. No depreciation is charged on the development expenditure before the start of commercial production.

(g) Provision for restoration and environmental costs

The Company has liabilities related to restoration of soil and other related works, which are due upon the closure of certain of its production sites.

Such liabilities are estimated case-by-case based on available information, taking into account applicable local legal requirements. The estimation is made using existing technology, at current prices, and discounted using a discount rate where the effect of time value of money is material. Future restoration and environmental costs, discounted to net present value, are capitalised and the corresponding restoration liability is raised as soon as the obligation to incur such costs arises. Future restoration and environmental costs are capitalised in property, plant and equipment or mining assets as appropriate and are depreciated over the life of the related asset. The effect of the time value of money on the restoration and environmental costs liability is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

(h) Intangible assets (excluding goodwill)

Patents, trademarks and software costs are included in the balance sheet as intangible assets where they are clearly linked to long term economic benefits for the Company. In this case they are measured initially at purchase cost and then amortised on a straight line basis over their estimated useful lives. All other costs on patents, trademarks and software are expensed in the statement of profit and loss as and when incurred.

Expenditure on research activities is recognised as an expense in the period in which it is incurred. Costs incurred on individual development projects are recognised as intangible assets from the date when all of the following conditions are met:

(i) completion of the development is technically feasible.

(ii) it is the intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it.

(iii) it is clear that the intangible asset will generate probable future economic benefits.

(iv) adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the intangible asset are available and;

(v) it is possible to reliably measure the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development.

Recognition of costs as an asset is ceased when the project is complete and available for its intended use, or if these criteria no longer applicable.

Where development activities do not meet the conditions for recognition as an asset, any associated expenditure is treated as an expense in the period in which it is incurred.

Subsequent to initial recognition, intangible assets with definite useful lives are reported at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses.

(i) Depreciation and amortisation of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets

Depreciation or amortisation is provided so as to write off, on a straight line basis, the cost of property, plant and equipment and other intangible assets, including those held under finance leases to their residual value. These charges are commenced from the dates the assets are available for their intended use and are spread over their estimated useful economic lives or, in the case of leased assets, over the lease period, if shorter. The estimated useful lives of assets and residual values are reviewed regularly and, when necessary, revised. No further charge is provided in respect of assets that are fully written down but are still in use.

Depreciation on assets under construction commences only when the assets are ready for their intended use.

The estimated useful lives for the main categories of property, plant and equipment and other intangible assets are:

Mining assets are amortised over the useful life of the mine or lease period whichever is lower.

Major furnace relining expenses are depreciated over a period of 10 years (average expected life).

Freehold land is not depreciated.

Assets value upto Rs.25,000 are fully depreciated in the year of acquisition.

*For these class of assets, based on internal assessment and independent technical evaluation carried out by chartered engineers, the Company believes that the useful lives as given above best represent the period over which Company expects to use these assets. Hence the useful lives for these assets are different from the useful lives as prescribed under Part C of Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013.

(j) Impairment

At each balance sheet date, the Company reviews the carrying values of its property, plant and equipment and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that the carrying value of those assets may not be recoverable through continuing use. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is reviewed in order to determine the extent of impairment loss (if any). Where the asset does not generate cash flows that are independent from other assets, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs.

Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted. An impairment loss is recognised in the statement of profit and loss as and when the carrying value of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount.

Where an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying value of the asset (or cash generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount so that the increased carrying value does not exceed the carrying value that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset (or cash generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised in the statement of profit and loss immediately.

(k) Leases

The Company determines whether an arrangement contains a lease by assessing whether the fulfillment of a transaction is dependent on the use of a specific asset and whether the transaction conveys the right to use that asset to the Company in return for payment. Where this occurs, the arrangement is deemed to include a lease and is accounted for either as finance or operating lease.

Leases are classified as finance leases where the terms of the lease transfers substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

The Company as lessee

(i) Operating lease - Rentals payable under operating leases are charged to the statement of profit and loss on a straight line basis over the term of the relevant lease unless another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefits from the leased asset are consumed. Contingent rentals arising under operating leases are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

In the event that lease incentives are received to enter into operating leases, such incentives are recognised as a liability. The aggregate benefit of incentives is recognised as a reduction of rental expense on a straight line basis, except where another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefits from the leased asset are consumed.

(ii) Finance lease - Finance leases are capitalised at the commencement of lease, at the lower of the fair value of the property or the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding liability to the lessor is included in the balance sheet as a finance lease obligation. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease obligation so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognised in the statement of profit and loss over the period of the lease.

The Company as lessor

(i) Operating lease - Rental income from operating leases is recognised in the statement of profit and loss on a straight line basis over the term of the relevant lease unless another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefits from the leased asset is diminished. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying value of the leased asset and recognised on a straight line basis over the lease term.

(ii) Finance lease - When assets are leased out under a finance lease, the present value of the minimum lease payments is recognised as a receivable. The difference between the gross receivable and the present value of the receivable is recognised as unearned finance income. Lease income is recognised over the term of the lease using the net investment method before tax, which reflects a constant periodic rate of return.

(l) Stripping costs

The Company separates two different types of stripping costs that are incurred in surface mining activity:

- developmental stripping costs and

- production stripping costs

Developmental stripping costs which are incurred in order to obtain access to quantities of mineral reserves that will be mined in future periods are capitalised as part of mining assets. Capitalisation of developmental stripping costs ends when the commercial production of the mineral reserves begins.

A mine can operate several open pits that are regarded as separate operations for the purpose of mine planning and production. In this case, stripping costs are accounted for separately, by reference to the ore extracted from each separate pit. If, however, the pits are highly integrated for the purpose of mine planning and production, stripping costs are aggregated too.

The determination of whether multiple pit mines are considered separate or integrated operations depends on each mine’s specific circumstances. The following factors normally point towards the stripping costs for the individual pits being accounted for separately:

- mining of the second and subsequent pits is conducted consecutively with that of the first pit, rather than concurrently

- separate investment decisions are made to develop each pit, rather than a single investment decision being made at the outset

- the pits are operated as separate units in terms of mine planning and the sequencing of overburden and ore mining, rather than as an integrated unit

- expenditures for additional infrastructure to support the second and subsequent pits are relatively large

- the pits extract ore from separate and distinct ore bodies, rather than from a single ore body.

The relative importance of each factor is considered by the management to determine whether, on balance, the stripping costs should be attributed to the individual pit or to the combined output from the several pits.

Production stripping costs are incurred to extract the ore in the form of inventories and/or to improve access to an additional component of an ore body or deeper levels of material. Production stripping costs are accounted for as inventories to the extent the benefit from production stripping activity is realised in the form of inventories.

The Company recognises a stripping activity asset in the production phase if, and only if, all of the following are met:

- it is probable that the future economic benefit (improved access to the ore body) associated with the stripping activity will flow to the Company

- the entity can identify the component of the ore body for which access has been improved and

- the costs relating to the improved access to that component can be measured reliably.

Such costs are presented within mining assets. After initial recognition, stripping activity assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment. The expected useful life of the identified component of the ore body is used to depreciate or amortise the stripping asset.

(m) Financial Instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. Financial assets and liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit and loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value measured on initial recognition of financial asset or financial liability. The transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit and loss are immediately recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

Effective interest method

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial instrument and of allocating interest income or expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts future cash receipts or payments through the expected life of the financial instrument, or where appropriate, a shorter period.

(a) Financial assets Cash and bank balances

Cash and bank balances consist of:

(i) Cash and cash equivalents - which includes cash in hand, deposits held at call with banks and other short term deposits which are readily convertible into known amounts of cash, are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value and have maturities of less than one year from the date of such deposits. These balances with banks are unrestricted for withdrawal and usage.

(ii) Other bank balances - which includes balances and deposits with banks that are restricted for withdrawal and usage.

Financial assets at amortised cost

Financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost if these financial assets are held within a business model whose objective is to hold these assets in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

Financial assets measured at fair value

Financial assets are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if these financial assets are held within a business model whose objective is to hold these assets in order to collect contractual cash flows or to sell these financial assets and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

The Company in respect of equity investments (other than in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures) which are not held for trading has made an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value of such equity instruments. Such an election is made by the Company on an instrument by instrument basis at the time of initial recognition of such equity investments.

Financial asset not measured at amortised cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income is carried at fair value through the statement of profit and loss.

Impairment of financial assets

Loss allowance for expected credit losses is recognised for financial assets measured at amortised cost and fair value through other comprehensive income.

The Company recognises life time expected credit losses for all trade receivables that do not constitute a financing transaction.

For financial assets whose credit risk has not significantly increased since initial recognition, loss allowance equal to twelve months expected credit losses is recognised. Loss allowance equal to the lifetime expected credit losses is recognised if the credit risk on the financial instruments has significantly increased since initial recognition.

De-recognition of financial assets

The Company de-recognises a financial asset only when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or it transfers the financial asset and substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another entity.

If the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and continues to control the transferred asset, the Company recognises its retained interest in the assets and an associated liability for amounts it may have to pay.

If the Company retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a transferred financial asset, the Company continues to recognise the financial asset and also recognises a collateralised borrowing for the proceeds received.

(b) Financial liabilities and equity instruments Classification as debt or equity

Financial liabilities and equity instruments issued by the Company are classified according to the substance of the contractual arrangements entered into and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.

Equity instruments

An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of the Company after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments are recorded at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.

Financial Liabilities

Trade and other payables are initially measured at fair value, net of transaction costs, and are subsequently measured at amortised cost, using the effective interest rate method where the time value of money is significant.

Interest bearing bank loans, overdrafts and issued debt are initially measured at fair value and are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. Any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the settlement or redemption of borrowings is recognised over the term of the borrowings in the statement of profit and loss.

De-recognition of financial liabilities

The Company de-recognises financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company’s obligations are discharged, cancelled or they expire.

Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting

In the ordinary course of business, the Company uses certain derivative financial instruments to reduce business risks which arise from its exposure to foreign exchange and interest rate fluctuations. The instruments are confined principally to forward foreign exchange contracts, cross currency swaps, interest rate swaps and collars. The instruments are employed as hedges of transactions included in the financial statements or for highly probable forecast transactions/firm contractual commitments. These derivatives contracts do not generally extend beyond six months, except for certain currency swaps and interest rate derivatives.

Derivatives are initially accounted for and measured at fair value from the date the derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period.

The Company adopts hedge accounting for forward and interest rate contracts wherever possible. At the inception of each hedge, there is a formal, documented designation of the hedging relationship. This documentation includes, inter alia, items such as identification of the hedged item or transaction and the nature of the risk being hedged. At inception each hedge is expected to be highly effective in achieving an offset of changes in fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk. The effectiveness of hedge instruments to reduce the risk associated with the exposure being hedged is assessed and measured at the inception and on an ongoing basis. The ineffective portion of designated hedges is recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

When hedge accounting is applied:

- for fair value hedges of recognised assets and liabilities, changes in fair value of the hedged assets and liabilities attributable to the risk being hedged, are recognised in the statement of profit and loss and compensate for the effective portion of symmetrical changes in the fair value of the derivatives

- for cash flow hedges, the effective portion of the change in the fair value of the derivative is recognised directly in equity and the ineffective portion is taken to the statement of profit and loss. If the cash flow hedge of a firm commitment or forecasted transaction results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or liability, then, at the time the asset or liability is recognised, the associated gains or losses on the derivative that had previously been recognised in equity are included in the initial measurement of the asset or liability. For hedges that do not result in the recognition of a non-financial asset or a liability, amounts deferred in equity are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the same period in which the hedged item affects the statement of profit and loss.

In cases where hedge accounting is not applied, changes in the fair value of derivatives are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as and when they arise.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. At that time, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in equity is retained in equity until the forecasted transaction occurs. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in equity is transferred to the statement of profit and loss for the period.

(n) Employee benefits

Defined contribution plans

Payments to defined contribution plans are charged as an expense as they fall due. Payments made to state managed retirement benefit schemes are dealt with as payments to defined contribution schemes where the Company’s obligations under the schemes are equivalent to those arising in a defined contribution retirement benefit scheme.

Defined benefit plans

For defined benefit retirement schemes the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method, with actuarial valuation being carried out at each balance sheet date. Re-measurement gains and losses of the net defined benefit liability/(asset) are recognised immediately in other comprehensive income. The service cost and net interest on the net defined benefit liability/(asset) is treated as a net expense within employment costs.

Past service cost is recognised as an expense when the plan amendment or curtailment occurs or when any related restructuring costs or termination benefits are recognised, whichever is earlier.

The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the balance sheet represents the present value of the defined-benefit obligation as reduced by the fair value plan assets.

Compensated absences

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service are recognised based on actuarial valuation at the present value of the obligation as on the reporting date.

(o) Inventories

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Costs comprise direct materials and, where applicable, direct labour costs and those overheads that have been incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Net realisable value is the price at which the inventories can be realised in the normal course of business after allowing for the cost of conversion from their existing state to a finished condition and for the cost of marketing, selling and distribution.

Stores and spare parts are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Provisions are made to cover slow moving and obsolete items based on historical experience of utilisation on a product category basis, which involves individual businesses considering their product lines and market conditions.

(p) Provisions

Provisions are recognised in the balance sheet when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, which is expected to result in an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits which can be reliably estimated. Each provision is based on the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date. Where the time value of money is material, provisions are measured on a discounted basis.

Constructive obligation is an obligation that derives from an entity’s actions where:

(a) by an established pattern of past practice, published policies or a sufficiently specific current statement, the entity has indicated to other parties that it will accept certain responsibilities and;

(b) as a result, the entity has created a valid expectation on the part of those other parties that it will discharge those responsibilities.

(q) Onerous contracts

A provision for onerous contracts is recognised when the expected benefits to be derived by the Company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before a provision is established, the Company recognises any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.

(r) Government grants

Government grants related to expenditure on property, plant and equipment are credited to the statement of profit and loss over the useful lives of qualifying assets or other systematic basis representative of the pattern of fulfilment of obligations associated with the grant received. Total grants received less the amounts credited to the statement of profit and loss at the balance sheet date are included in the balance sheet as deferred income.

(s) Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations

Non-current assets and disposal groups classified as held for sale are measured at the lower of their carrying value and fair value less costs to sell.

Assets and disposal groups are classified as held for sale if their carrying value will be recovered through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use. This condition is only met when the sale is highly probable and the asset, or disposal group, is available for immediate sale in its present condition and is marketed for sale at a price that is reasonable in relation to its current fair value. The Company must also be committed to the sale, which should be expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale within one year from the date of classification.

Where a disposal group represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations, or is part of a single coordinated plan to dispose of a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations, then it is treated as a discontinued operation. The post-tax profit or loss of the discontinued operation together with the gain or loss recognised on its disposal are disclosed as a single amount in the statement of profit and loss, with all prior periods being presented on this basis.

(t) Income taxes

Tax expense for the year comprises current and deferred tax. The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from net profit as reported in the statement of profit and loss because it excludes items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and it further excludes items that are never taxable or deductible. The Company’s liability for current tax is calculated using tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

Deferred tax is the tax expected to be payable or recoverable on differences between the carrying values of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit and is accounted for using the balance sheet liability method. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences. In contrast, deferred tax assets are only recognised to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilised.

The carrying value of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax is calculated at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period when the liability is settled or the asset is realised based on the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the end of the reporting period. The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to cover or settle the carrying value of its assets and liabilities.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset to the extent that they relate to taxes levied by the same tax authority and there are legally enforceable rights to set off current tax assets and current tax liabilities within that jurisdiction.

Current and deferred tax are recognised as an expense or income in the statement of profit and loss, except when they relate to items credited or debited either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case the tax is also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity.

Deferred tax assets include Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws in India, which is likely to give future economic benefits in the form of availability of set off against future income tax liability. MAT is recognised as deferred tax assets in the Balance Sheet when the asset can be measured reliably and it is probable that the future economic benefit associated with the asset will be realised.

(u) Revenue

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable net of discounts, taking into account contractually defined terms and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government.

Sale of goods

Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer. No revenue is recognised if there are significant uncertainties regarding recovery of the amount due, associated costs or the possible return of goods.

Interest income

Interest income is accrued on a time proportion basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and the effective interest rate applicable.

Dividend income

Dividend income from investments is recognised when the shareholder’s rights to receive payment have been established.

Rental income

Rental income from investment properties and subletting of properties is recognised on a straight line basis over the term of the relevant leases.

Commission income

Commission income is recognised when the services are rendered.

(v) Foreign currency transactions and translations

The financial statements of the Company are presented in Indian rupees (‘), which is the functional currency of the Company and the presentation currency for the financial statements.

In preparing the financial statements, transactions in currencies other than the Company’s functional currency are recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on the date of the transaction. At the end of each reporting period, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are re-translated at the rates prevailing at the end of the reporting period. Nonmonetary items carried at fair value that are denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing on the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not translated.

Exchange differences arising on translation of long term foreign currency monetary items recognised in the financial statements before the beginning of the first Ind AS financial reporting period in respect of which the Company has elected to recognise such exchange differences in equity or as part of cost of assets as allowed under Ind AS 101-”First time adoption of Indian Accounting Standard” are recognised directly in equity or added/deducted to/ from the cost of assets as the case may be. Such exchange differences recognised in equity or as part of cost of assets is recognised in the statement of profit and loss on a systematic basis.

Exchange differences arising on the retranslation or settlement of other monetary items are included in the statement of profit and loss for the period.

(w) Borrowing costs

Borrowings costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for the intended use or sale.

Investment income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

Discounts or premiums and expenses on the issue of debt securities are amortised over the term of the related securities and included within borrowing costs. Premiums payable on early redemptions of debt securities, in lieu of future finance costs, are written off as borrowing costs when paid.


Mar 31, 2015

(a) Basis for Accounting

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Accounting Standards notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 and the relevant provisions thereof.

(b) Use of Estimates and Judgements

In preparation of the financial statements, the Company is required to make judgements, estimates and assumptions about the carrying amount of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The estimates and the associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

The estimates and the underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised and future periods affected. Significant judgements and estimates about the carrying amount of assets and liabilities include useful lives of tangible and intangible assets, impairment of tangible assets, intangible assets including goodwill, investments, employee benefits and other provisions and recoverability of deferred tax assets.

(c) Revenue Recognition

(i) Revenue from sale of goods is recognised net of rebates and discounts on transfer of significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer. Sale of goods is recognised gross of excise duty but net of sales tax and value added tax.

(ii) Export incentive under various schemes notified by the Government has been recognised on the basis of amount received.

(iii) Dividend is recorded when the right to receive payment is established. Interest income is recognised on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

(d) Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefits are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year in which the employee has rendered services.

(ii) For defined-benefit plans, the amount recognised in the Balance Sheet is the present value of the defined-benefit obligation less the fair value of any plan assets and any past service costs not yet recognised. The present value of the defined-benefit obligation is the present value of expected future payments required to settle the obligation resulting from employee service in the current and prior periods. The discount rate used is the market yields on government bonds at the Balance Sheet date with remaining terms to maturity approximating those of the Company''s obligations.

(iii) Other long-term employee benefits are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year in which the employee has rendered services. Estimated liability on account of long-term benefits is discounted to the present value, using the market yield on Government Bonds, as on the date of Balance Sheet.

(iv) Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long-term benefits are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(v) In respect of the Employee Separation Scheme, the increase in the net present value of the future liability for pension payable to employees, who have opted for retirement under the Employee Separation Scheme of the Company, is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(e) Tangible Assets

Tangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and net of impairment, if any. Pre-operation expenses including trial run expenses (net of revenue) are capitalised. Borrowing costs during the period of construction is added to the cost of eligible tangible assets.

Major expenses on relining of furnace are capitalised. The written down value of the asset consisting of lining/relining expenditure embedded in the cost of the furnace is written off in the year of fresh relining.

(f) Intangible Assets

I ntangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation and net of impairments, if any. An intangible asset is recognised if it is probable that the expected future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the Company and its cost can be measured reliably. Intangible assets having finite useful lives are amortised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives.

(g) Depreciation and Amortisation

Depreciation is provided on a straight line basis over the useful lives of assets, which is as stated in Schedule II of Companies Act 2013 or based on technical estimate made by the Company. However, assets value upto Rs 25,000 are fully depreciated in the year of acquisition. The details of estimated life for each category of asset are as under:

(i) Buildings - 30 to 60 years

(ii) Roads - 5 years

(iii) Plant and Machinery used in manufacturing of Steel - 20 years*

(iv) Other Plant and Machinery - 6 to 40 years*

(v) Railway Sidings - 20 years*

(vi) Vehicles and Aircraft - 5 to 20 years

(vii) Furniture, Fixtures and Office Equipments - 4 to 6 years

(viii) Computer Software - 5 years

(ix) Assets covered under Electricity Act (life as prescribed under the Electricity Act) — 3 to 34 years

(x) Development of property for development of mines and collieries are amortised over the useful life of the mine or lease period whichever is less, subject to maximum of 10 years.

(xi) Major furnace relining expenses are depreciated over a period of 10 years (average expected life).

(xii) Freehold land is not depreciated.

(xiii) Leasehold land and other leasehold assets are amortised over the life of the lease.

*For these class of assets, based on internal assessment and independent technical evaluation carried out by external valuers the Company believes that the useful lives as given above best represent the period over which Company expects to use these assets. Hence the useful lives for these assets are different from the useful lives as prescribed under Part C of Schedule II of the Companies Act 2013.

(h) Impairment

Fixed assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amount may not be recoverable.

An impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss if the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. Recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s net selling price and value in use.

An impairment loss recognised on asset is reversed when the conditions warranting impairment provision no longer exists.

(i) Foreign Currency Transactions

Transactions in foreign currency are recorded at the rate of exchange prevailing on the date of transaction. Year-end balance of foreign currency monetary item is translated at the year-end rates. Exchange differences arising on settlement of monetary items or on reporting of monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the period or reported in previous financial statements are recognised as income or expense in the period in which they arise.

The Company has elected to account for exchange differences arising on reporting of long-term foreign currency monetary items in accordance with Companies (Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2009 pertaining to Accounting Standard 11 (AS-11) notified by Government of India on 31st March, 2009 (as amended on 29th December, 2011). Accordingly, the effect of exchange differences on foreign currency loans of the Company is accounted by addition or deduction to the cost of the assets so far it relates to depreciable capital assets and in other cases by transfer to "Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Difference Account" to be amortised over the balance period of the long-term monetary items.

Exchange differences relating to monetary items that are in substance forming part of the Company''s net investment in non- integral foreign operations are accumulated in Foreign Exchange Fluctuation Reserve Account.

Foreign currency monetary items that are used as hedge instruments or hedged items are accounted as per accounting policy on derivative financial instruments.

(j) Derivative Financial Instruments

(i) The Company uses derivative financial instruments such as forwards, swaps, options, etc. to hedge its risks associated with foreign exchange fluctuations. Such derivative financial instruments are used as risk management tools and not for speculative purposes.

(ii) Derivative financial instruments entered into for hedging foreign exchange risks of recognised foreign currency monetary items are accounted for as per the principles laid down in Accounting Standard - 11 "The effects of changes in Foreign Rates".

(iii) For derivative financial instruments and foreign currency monetary items designated as Cash Flow hedges, the effective portion of the fair value of the derivative financial instruments are recognised in Cash Flow Hedge Reserve and reclassified in the period in which the Statement of Profit and Loss is impacted by the hedged items. In cases where the exposure gives rise to a non-financial asset, the effective portion is reclassified from Hedging Reserve to the initial carrying amount of the non-financial asset as a ''basis adjustment'' and recycled to the Statement of Profit and Loss when the respective non-financial asset affects the Statement of Profit and Loss in future periods. The ineffective portion of the change in fair value of such instruments is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they arise. Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. For forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in Cash Flow Hedge Reserve is retained there until the forecasted transaction occurs.

If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in Cash Flow Hedge Reserve is immediately transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(iv) I f no hedging relationship is designated, the fair value of the derivative financial instruments is marked to market through the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(k) Investments

Long-term investments are carried at cost less provision for diminution other than temporary, if any,in value of such investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value.

(l) Inventories

Finished and semi-finished products produced and purchased by the Company are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value. Work-in-progress is carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Coal, iron ore and other raw materials produced and purchased by the Company are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value. Stores and spare parts are carried at cost. Necessary provision is made and expensed in case of identified obsolete and non- moving items.

Cost of inventories is generally ascertained on the ''weighted average'' basis. Work-in-progress and finished and semi-finished products are valued on full absorption cost basis.

(m) Relining Expenses

Relining expenses other than major expenses on furnace relining are charged as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they are incurred.

(n) Research and Development

Research and Development costs (other than cost of fixed assets acquired) are charged as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they are incurred.

(o) Deferred Tax

Deferred Tax is accounted for by computing the tax effect of timing differences, subject to the consideration of prudence in respect of deferred tax assets, which arise during the year and reverse in subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured at substantively enacted tax rates by the Balance Sheet date.

(a) (i) 20 Ordinary Shares of face value Rs.10 per share allotted on 1st December, 2014 at a premium of Rs 290 per share to shareholders whose shares were kept in abeyance in the Rights issue made in 2007.

(ii) 14 Ordinary Shares offace value 10 per share allotted on 1st December, 2014at a premium ofRs 590 per shareto holders of Cumulative Convertible Preference Shares in the ratio of 6:1 on conversion whose shares were kept in abeyance in the Rights issue made in 2007.

(b) 176OrdinarySharesoffacevalueofRs 10 pershareallotted on11th March, 2014ata premium ofRs 290 pershareto shareholders whose shares were kept in abeyance in the Rights issue made in 2007.

(c) The balance Ordinary Shares kept in abeyance are 3,01,183 (31.03.2014:3,01,218) in respect of Rights issue of 2007.

(3) Particulars of securities convertible into Ordinary Shares:

In November 2009, the Company had issued 5,469.35 numbers of 4.5% Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds (FCCBs) of face value USD 0.1 million each aggregating to USD 546.935 million. As on 30th September, 2014, these represented 4,33,51,989 (31.3.2014: 4,28,28,141) underlying shares and are convertible at any time on or after 31st December, 2009 and upto 11th November, 2014 by the holders of such FCCBs at a conversion price of Rs 584.8845 per share (31.3.2014: Rs 592.0385 per share) and at a fixed USD/INR conversion rate of 46.36.

Since, the FCCBs holders did not exercise the option of conversion until 11th November, 2014, the FCCBs were redeemed on 20th November, 2014 at an aggregate amount Rs 3,381.22 crores.

(4) 1,79,07,847 shares (31.03.2014:2,88,75,320 shares) of face value of Rs 10 per share represent the shares underlying GDRs which were issued during 1994 and 2009. Each GDR represents one underlying Ordinary Share.

(5) The rights, powers and preferences relating to each class of share capital and the qualifications, limitations and restrictions thereof are contained in the Memorandum and Articles of Association of the Company. The principal rights are as follows:

A. Ordinary Shares of Rs 10 each

(a) In respect of every Ordinary Share (whether fully paid or partly paid), voting right shall be in the same proportion as the capital paid up on such Ordinary Share bears to the total paid up Ordinary Capital of the Company.

(b) The dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is subject to the approval of the shareholders in the ensuing Annual General Meeting, except in case of interim dividend.

(c) In the event of liquidation, the shareholders of Ordinary Shares are eligible to receive the remaining assets of the Company after distribution of all preferential amounts, in proportion to their shareholding.

B. ''A'' Ordinary Shares of Rs 10 each

(a) (i) The holders of ''A'' Ordinary Shares shall be entitled to such rights of voting and/or dividend and such other

rights as per the terms of the issue of such shares, provided always that:

- i n the case where a resolution is put to vote on a poll, such differential voting entitlement (excluding fractions, if any) will be applicable to holders of ''A'' Ordinary Shares.

- in the case where a resolution is put to vote in the meeting and is to be decided on a show of hands, the holders of ''A'' Ordinary Shares shall be entitled to the same number of votes as available to holders of Ordinary Shares.

(ii) The holders of Ordinary Shares and the holders of ''A''Ordinary Shares shall vote as a single class with respect to all matters submitted for voting by shareholders of the Company and shall exercise such votes in proportion to the voting rights attached to such shares including in relation to any scheme under Sections 391 to 394 of the Companies Act, 1956.

(b) The holders of ''A'' Ordinary Shares shall be entitled to dividend on each ''A'' Ordinary Share which may be equal to or higher than the amount per Ordinary Share declared by the Board for each Ordinary Share, and as may be specified at the time of the issue. Different series of ''A'' Ordinary Shares may carry different entitlements to dividend to the extent permitted under applicable law and as prescribed under the terms applicable to such issue.

C. Preference Shares

The Company has two classes of preference shares i.e. Cumulative Redeemable Preference Shares (CRPS) of '' 100 per share and Cumulative Convertible Preference Shares (CCPS) of '' 100 per share.

(a) Such shares shall confer on the holders thereof, the right to a fixed preferential dividend from the date of allotment, at a rate as may be determined by the Board at the time of the issue, on the capital for the time being paid up or credited as paid up thereon.

(b) Such shares shall rank for capital and dividend (including all dividend undeclared upto the commencement of winding up) and for repayment of capital in a winding up, pari passu inter se and in priority to the Ordinary Shares of the Company, but shall not confer any further or other right to participate either in profits or assets. However, in case of CCPS, such preferential rights shall automatically cease on conversion of these shares into Ordinary Shares.

(c) The holders of such shares shall have the right to receive all notices of general meetings of the Company but shall not confer on the holders thereof the right to vote at any meetings of the Company save to the extent and in the manner provided in the Companies Act, 1956, or any re-enactment thereof.

(d) CCPS shall be converted into Ordinary Shares as per the terms, determined by the Board at the time of issue; as and when converted, such Ordinary Shares shall rank pari passu with the then existing Ordinary Shares of the Company in all respects.

(b) The amount recognised in Cash Flow Hedge Reserve is expected to impact Statement of Profit and Loss within the next one year.

(c) Ineffective portion taken to Statement of Profit and Loss during the year Rs 0.44 crore (31.03.2014: Rs 0.21 crore).

(2) The Company has elected to account for exchange differences arising on reporting of long-term foreign currency monetary item in accordance with Companies (Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules 2009 pertaining to Accounting Standard 11 (AS-11) notified by Government of India on 31st March, 2009 (as amended on 29th December, 2011) which allows foreign exchange differences on long-term monetary items arising on or after 1st April, 2011 to be capitalised to the extent they relate to acquisition of depreciable assets and in other cases to amortise over the balance period of the respective monetary items. As on 31st March, 2015, Rs 0.12 crore (31.03.2014: Rs 276.75 crores) remains to be amortised in the "Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Difference Account".

(3) During the year, the Company has revised depreciation rate on certain fixed assets as per the useful life specified in the Companies Act, 2013 or re-assessed by the Company based on technical evaluation. Accordingly, depreciation of Rs 127.80 crores (net of deferred tax of Rs 67.64 crores) on account of assets with no remaining useful life as on 1st April, 2014 has been adjusted to retained earnings.

Had there been no change in useful life of assets, depreciation for the year ended 31st March, 2015 would have been higher by Rs 34.87 crores.

(1) The Company had issued Hybrid Perpetual Securities of Rs 775.00 crores and Rs 1,500.00 crores in May 2011and March 2011 respectively.

These securities are perpetual in nature with no maturity or redemption and are callable only at the option of the Company. The distribution on these securities are 11.50% p.a. and 11.80% p.a. respectively, with a step up provision if the securities are not called after 10 years. The distribution on the securities may be deferred at the option of the Company if in the six months preceding the relevant distribution payment date, the Company has not made payment on, or repurchased or redeemed, any securities ranking pari passu with, or junior to the instrument. As these securities are perpetual in nature and the Company does not have any redemption obligation, these are not classified as ''debt''

(1) Details of outstanding secured borrowings are as follows:

(a) Loan from Joint Plant Committee - Steel Development Fund which includes funded interest Rs 593.03 crores (31.03.2014: Rs 488.32 crores). It is repayable in 16 equal semi-annual installments after completion of 4 years from the date of receipt of the last tranche.

It is secured by mortgages on, all present and future immovable properties wherever situated and hypothecation of movable assets, excluding land and building mortgaged in favour of Government of India under the deed of mortgage dated 13th April, 1967 and in favour of Government of Bihar under two deeds of mortgage dated 11th May, 1963, immovable properties and movable assets of the Tube Division, Bearing Division, Ferro Alloys Division and Cold Rolling Complex (West) at Tarapur and all investments and book debts of the Company subject to the prior charges created and/or to be created in favour of the bankers for securing borrowing for the working capital requirement and charges created and/or to be created on specific items of machinery and equipment procured/to be procured under Deferred Payment schemes/Bill Re-discounting schemes/Asset Credit schemes.

The Company has filed a writ petition before the High Court at Kolkata in February 2006 claiming waiver of the outstanding loan and interest and refund of the balance lying with Steel Development Fund and the matter is sub-judice.

Loan from the Joint Plant Committee-Steel Development Fund includes Rs 1,639.33 crores (31.03.2014: Rs 1,599.73 crores) representing repayments and interest on earlier loans for which applications of funding are awaiting sanction is not secured by charge on movable assets of the Company.


Mar 31, 2014

(a) basis for Accounting

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Accounting Standards notified under Section 211(3C) of the Companies Act, 1956 and the relevant provisions thereof.

(b) Use of Estimates and Judgements

In preparation of the financial statements, the Company is required to make judgements, estimates and assumptions about the carrying amount of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The estimates and the associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

The estimates and the underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised and future periods affected. Significant judgements and estimates about the carrying amount of assets and liabilities include useful lives of tangible and intangible assets, impairment of tangible assets, intangible assets including goodwill, investments, employee Benefits and other provisions and recoverability of deferred tax assets.

(c) Revenue Recognition

(i) Revenue from sale of goods is recognised net of rebates and discounts on transfer of significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer. Sale of goods is recognised gross of excise duty but net of sales tax and value added tax.

(ii) Export incentive under various schemes notified by the Government has been recognised on the basis of amount received.

(d) Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee Benefits are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year in which the employee has rendered services.

(ii) For defined-benefit plans, the amount recognised in the Balance Sheet is the present value of the defined-benefit obligation less the fair value of any plan assets and any past service costs not yet recognised. The present value of the defined-benefit obligation is the present value of expected future payments required to settle the obligation resulting from employee service in the current and prior periods. The discount rate used is the market yields on government bonds at the Balance Sheet date with remaining terms to maturity approximating those of the Company''s obligations.

(iii) Other long-term employee Benefits are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year in which the employee has rendered services. Estimated liability on account of long-term Benefits is discounted to the present value, using the market yield on Government Bonds, as on the date of Balance Sheet.

(iv) Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long-term Benefits are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(v) In respect of the Employee Separation Scheme, the increase in the net present value of the future liability for pension payable to employees, who have opted for retirement under the Employee Separation Scheme of the Company, is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(e) Tangible Assets Tangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and net of impairment, if any. Pre-operation expenses including trial run expenses (net of revenue) are capitalised. Borrowing costs during the period of construction is added to the cost of eligible tangible assets.

Major expenses on relining of furnace are capitalised. The written down value of the asset consisting of lining/relining expenditure embedded in the cost of the furnace is written off in the year of fresh relining.

(f) Intangible Assets

Intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation and net of impairments, if any. An intangible asset is recognised if it is probable that the expected future economic Benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the Company and its cost can be measured reliably. Intangible assets having finite useful lives are amortised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives.

(g) Depreciation and Amortisation

(i) Capital assets whose ownership does not vest with the Company are depreciated over their estimated useful life or five years, whichever is less.

(ii) In respect of other assets, depreciation is provided on a straight line basis applying the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 or rates based on estimated useful life whichever is higher. However, asset value upto Rs. 25,000 is fully depreciated in the year of acquisition. The details of estimated life for each category of asset are as under:

(a) Buildings and Roads — 30 to 62 years

(b) Plant and Machinery — 3 to 30 years

(c) Railway Sidings — 21 years

(d) Vehicles and Aircraft — 5 to 18 years

(e) Furniture, Fixtures and Office Equipments — 5 years

(f) Intangibles (Computer Soft wares) — 5 to 10 years

(g) Development of property for development of mines and collieries are amortised over the useful life of the mine or lease period whichever is less, subject to maximum of 10 years.

(h) Major furnace relining expenses are depreciated over a period of 10 years (average expected life).

(i) Freehold land is not depreciated.

(j) Leasehold land and other leasehold assets are amortised over the life of the lease.

(h) Impairment

Fixed assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amount may not be recoverable.

An impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss if the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount.

(i) Foreign Currency Transactions

Transactions in foreign currency are recorded at the rate of exchange prevailing on the date of transaction. Year-end balance of foreign currency monetary item is translated at the year-end rates. Exchange differences arising on settlement of monetary items or on reporting of monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the period or reported in previous financial statements are recognised as income or expense in the period in which they arise. The Company has elected to account for exchange differences arising on reporting of long-term foreign currency monetary items in accordance with Companies (Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2009 pertaining to Accounting Standard 11 (AS-11) notified by Government of India on 31st March, 2009 (as amended on 29th December, 2011). Accordingly, the effect of exchange differences on foreign currency loans of the Company is accounted by addition or deduction to the cost of the assets so far it relates to depreciable capital assets and in other cases by transfer to "Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Difference Account" to be amortised over the balance period of the long-term monetary items. Exchange differences relating to monetary items that are in substance forming part of the Company''s net investment in non- integral foreign operations are accumulated in Foreign Exchange Fluctuation Reserve Account.

Foreign currency monetary items that are used as hedge instruments or hedged items are accounted as per accounting policy on derivative financial instruments.

(j) Derivative Financial Instruments

(i) The Company uses derivative financial instruments such as Forwards, Swaps, Options, etc. to hedge its risks associated with foreign exchange fluctuations. Such derivative financial instruments are used as risk management tools and not for speculative purposes.

(ii) Derivative financial instruments entered into for hedging foreign exchange risks of recognised foreign currency monetary items are accounted for as per the principles laid down in Accounting Standard - 11 "The effects of changes in Foreign Rates".

(iii) For derivative financial instruments and foreign currency monetary items designated as Cash Flow hedges, the effective portion of the fair value of the derivative financial instruments are recognised in Cash Flow Hedge Reserve and reclassified in the period in which the Statement of Profit and Loss is impacted by the hedged items. In cases where the exposure gives rise to a non-financial asset, the effective portion is reclassified from Hedging Reserve to the initial carrying amount of the non-financial asset as a ''basis adjustment'' and recycled to the Statement of Profit and Loss when the respective non-financial asset affects the Statement of Profit and Loss in future periods. The ineffective portion of the change in fair value of such instruments is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they arise. Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. For forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in Cash Flow Hedge Reserve is retained their until the forecasted transaction occurs.

If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in Cash Flow Hedge Reserve is immediately transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(iv) If no hedging relationship is designated, the fair value of the derivative financial instruments is marked to market through the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(k) Investments

Long-term investments are carried at cost less provision for diminution other than temporary, if any, in value of such investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value.

(l) Inventories

Finished and semi-finished products produced and purchased by the Company are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Work-in-progress is carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Coal, iron ore and other raw materials produced and purchased by the Company are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Stores and spare parts are carried at cost. Necessary provision is made and expensed in case of identified obsolete and non- moving items.

Cost of inventories is generally ascertained on the ''weighted average'' basis. Work-in-progress and finished and semi-finished products are valued on full absorption cost basis.

(m) Relining Expenses

Relining expenses other than major expenses on furnace relining are charged as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they are incurred.

(n) Research and Development

Research and Development costs (other than cost of fixed assets acquired) are charged as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they are incurred.

(o) Deferred Tax

Deferred Tax is accounted for by computing the tax effect of timing differences, subject to the consideration of prudence in respect of deferred tax assets, which arise during the year and reverse in subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured at substantively enacted tax rates by the Balance Sheet date.


Mar 31, 2013

(a) Basis for Accounting

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Accounting Standards notified under Section 211(3C) of the Companies Act, 1956 and the relevant provisions thereof.

(b) Revenue Recognition

(i) Revenue from sale of goods is recognised net of rebates and discounts on transfer of significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer. Sale of goods is recognised gross of excise duty but net of sales tax and value added tax.

(ii) Export incentive under various schemes notified by the Government has been recognised on the basis of credits afforded in the pass book/amount received.

(c) Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefits are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year in which the employee has rendered services.

(ii) For defined-benefit plans, the amount recognised in the balance sheet is the present value of the defined-benefit obligation less the fair value of any plan assets and any past service costs not yet recognised. The present value of the defined-benefit obligation is the present value of expected future payments required to settle the obligation resulting from employee service in the current and prior periods. The discount rate used is the market yields on government bonds at the balance sheet date with remaining terms to maturity approximating those of the Company''s obligations.

(iii) Other long-term employee benefits are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year in which the employee has rendered services. Estimated liability on account of long-term benefits is discounted to the present value, using the market yield on Government Bonds, as on the date of balance sheet.

(iv) Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long-term benefits are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(v) In respect of the Employee Separation Scheme, the increase in the net present value of the future liability for pension payable to employees, who have opted for retirement under the Employee Separation Scheme of the Company, is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(d) Tangible Assets

Tangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and net of impairment, if any. Pre-operation expenses including trial run expenses (net of revenue) are capitalised. Borrowing costs during the period of construction is added to the cost of eligible tangible assets.

Blast Furnace relining is capitalised. The written down value of the asset consisting of lining/relining expenditure embedded in the cost of the furnace is written off in the year of fresh relining.

(e) Intangible Assets

Intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation and net of impairments, if any. An intangible asset is recognised if it is probable that the expected future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the Company and its cost can be measured reliably. Intangible assets having finite useful lives are amortised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives.

(f) Depreciation and Amortisation

(i) Capital assets whose ownership does not vest with the Company are depreciated over their estimated useful life or five years, whichever is less.

(ii) In respect of other assets, depreciation is provided on a straight line basis applying the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 or rates based on estimated useful life whichever is higher. However, asset value upto Rs. 25,000 is fully depreciated in the year of acquisition. The details of estimated life for each category of asset are as under:

(a) Buildings and Roads — 30 to 62 years

(b) Plant and Machinery — 3 to 30 years

(c) Railway Sidings — 21 years

(d) Vehicles and Aircraft — 5 to 18 years

(e) Furniture, Fixtures and Office Equipments — 5 years

(f) Intangibles (Computer Softwares) — 5 to 10 years

(g) Development of property for development of mines and collieries are amortised over the useful life of the mine or lease period whichever is less, subject to maximum of 10 years.

(h) Blast Furnace relining is depreciated over a period of 10 years (average expected life).

(i) Freehold land is not depreciated.

(j) Leasehold land and other leasehold assets are amortised over the life of the lease.

(g) Impairment

Fixed assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amount may not be recoverable.

An impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss if the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount.

(h) Foreign Currency Transactions

Foreign Currency Transactions (FCT) and forward exchange contracts entered into to hedge FCT are initially recognised at the spot rate on the date of the transaction/contract. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency and forward exchange contracts remaining unsettled at the end of the year are translated at year end rates.

The Company has elected to account for exchange differences arising on reporting of long-term foreign currency monetary items in accordance with Companies (Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2009 pertaining to Accounting Standard 11 (AS-11) notified by Government of India on 31st March, 2009 (as amended on 29th December, 2011). Accordingly, the effect of exchange differences on foreign currency loans of the Company is accounted by addition or deduction to the cost of the assets so far it relates to depreciable capital assets and in other cases by transfer to "Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Difference Account" to be amortised over the balance period of the long-term monetary items.

The differences in translation and settlement of FCT and forward exchange contracts used to hedge FCT [excluding the long- term foreign currency monetary items accounted in accordance with Companies (Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules 2009 on Accounting Standard 11 notified by Government of India on 31st March, 2009 as amended on 29th December, 2011] are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The outstanding derivative contracts at the balance sheet date other than forward exchange contracts used to hedge FCT are valued by marking them to market and losses, if any, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Exchange differences relating to monetary items that are in substance forming part of the Company''s net investment in non integral foreign operations are accumulated in Foreign Exchange Fluctuation Reserve Account.

(i) Investments

Long-term investments are carried at cost less provision for diminution other than temporary, if any, in value of such investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value.

(j) Inventories

Finished and semi-finished products produced and purchased by the Company are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Work-in-progress is carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Coal, iron ore and other raw materials produced and purchased by the Company are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Stores and spare parts are carried at cost. Necessary provision is made and expensed in case of identified obsolete and non- moving items.

Cost of inventories is generally ascertained on the ''weighted average'' basis. Work-in-progress and finished and semi-finished products are valued on full absorption cost basis.

(k) Relining Expenses

Relining expenses other than expenses on blast furnace relining are charged as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they are incurred.

(l) Research and Development

Research and Development costs (other than cost of fixed assets acquired) are charged as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they are incurred.

(m) Deferred Tax

Deferred Tax is accounted for by computing the tax effect of timing differences which arise during the year and reverse in subsequent periods.


Mar 31, 2012

(a) basis for Accounting

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Accounting Standards notified under Section 211(3C) of the Companies Act, 1956 and the relevant provisions thereof.

During the year, Revised Schedule vI notified under the Companies Act, 1956 has become applicable to the Company for preparation and presentation of its financial statements. The Company has reclassifed the previous year fgures in accordance with the requirements applicable in the current year.

(b) Revenue Recognition

(i) Revenue from sale of goods is recognised net of rebates and discounts on transfer of significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer. Sale of goods is recognised gross of excise duty but net of sales tax and value added tax.

(ii) Revenue from services rendered is recognised on pro-rata basis in proportion to the stage of completion of the related transaction.

(iii) Export incentive under various schemes notified by the Government has been recognised on the basis of credits afforded in the pass book/amount received.

(c) Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee Benefits are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year in which the employee has rendered services.

(ii) Post employment Benefits are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year in which the employee has rendered services. The expense is recognised at the present value of the amount payable towards contributions. The present value is determined using the market yields of government bonds, at the balance sheet date, as the discounting rate.

(iii) Other long-term employee Benefits are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year in which the employee has rendered services. Estimated liability on account of long-term Benefits is discounted to the present value, using the market yield on government bonds, as on the date of balance sheet.

(iv) Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long-term Benefits are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(v) In respect of the Employee Separation Scheme, the increase in the net present value of the future liability for pension payable to employees, who have opted for retirement under the Employee Separation Scheme of the Company, is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(d) Tangible Assets

Tangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and net of impairment, if any. Pre-operation expenses including trial run expenses (net of revenue) are capitalised. Borrowing costs during the period of construction is added to the cost of eligible tangible assets.

Blast Furnace relining is capitalised. The written down value of the asset consisting of lining/relining expenditure embedded in the cost of the furnace is written off in the year of firesh relining.

(e) Intangible Assets

Intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation and net of impairments, if any. An intangible asset is recognised if it is probable that the expected future economic Benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the Company and its cost can be measured reliably. Intangible assets having fnite useful lives are amortised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives.

(f) Depreciation and Amortisation

(i) Capital assets whose ownership does not vest with the Company are depreciated over their estimated useful life or five years, whichever is less.

(ii) In respect of other assets, depreciation is provided on a straight line basis applying the rates specified in Schedule XIv to the Companies Act, 1956 or rates based on estimated useful life whichever is higher. However, asset value upto Rs. 25,000 is fully depreciated in the year of acquisition. The details of estimated life for each category of asset are as under:

(a) Buildings and Roads — 30 to 62 years

(b) Plant and Machinery — 3 to 30 years

(c) Railway Sidings — 21 years

(d) vehicles and Aircraft — 5 to 18 years

(e) Furniture, Fixtures and Office Equipments — 5 years

(f) Intangibles (Computer Softwares) — 5 to 10 years

(g) Development of property for development of mines and collieries are depreciated over the useful life of the mine or lease period whichever is less, subject to maximum of 10 years.

(h) Blast Furnace relining is depreciated over a period of 10 years (average expected life).

(i) Fireehold land is not depreciated.

(j) Leasehold land and other leasehold assets are amortised over the life of the lease.

(g) impairment

Fixed assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amount may not be recoverable.

An impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss if the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount.

(h) Foreign Currency Transactions

Foreign Currency Transactions (FCT) and forward exchange contracts entered into to hedge FCT are initially recognised at the spot rate on the date of the transaction/contract. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency and forward exchange contracts remaining unsettled at the end of the year are translated at year end rates.

The Company has elected to account for exchange differences arising on reporting of long-term foreign currency monetary items in accordance with Companies (Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2009 pertaining to Accounting Standard 11 (AS-11) notified by Government of India on 31st March, 2009 (as amended on 29th December, 2011). Accordingly, the effect of exchange differences on foreign currency loans of the Company is accounted by addition or deduction to the cost of the assets so far it relates to depreciable capital assets and in other cases by transfer to "Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Difference Account" to be amortised over the balance period of the long-term monetary items.

The differences in translation and settlement of FCT and forward exchange contracts used to hedge FCT (excluding the long- term foreign currency monetary items accounted in line with Companies (Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules 2009 on Accounting Standard 11 notified by Government of India on 31st March, 2009 as amended on 29th December, 2011) are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The outstanding derivative contracts at the balance sheet date other than forward exchange contracts used to hedge FCT are valued by marking them to market and losses, if any, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Exchange differences relating to monetary items that are in substance forming part of the Company's net investment in non integral foreign operations are accumulated in Foreign Exchange Fluctuation Reserve Account.

(i) investments

Long-term investments are carried at cost less provision for diminution other than temporary, if any, in value of such investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value.

(j) inventories

Finished and semi-finished products produced and purchased by the Company are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Work-in-progress is carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Coal, iron ore and other raw materials produced and purchased by the Company are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Stores and spare parts are carried at cost. Necessary provision is made and charged to revenue in case of identifed obsolete and non-moving items.

Cost of inventories is generally ascertained on the 'weighted average' basis. Work-in-progress and finished and semi-finished products are valued on full absorption cost basis.

(k) Relining Expenses

Relining expenses other than expenses on blast furnace relining are charged as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they are incurred.

(l) Research and Development

Research and Development costs (other than cost of fixed assets acquired) are charged as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they are incurred.

(m) Deferred Tax

Deferred Tax is accounted for by computing the tax effect of timing differences which arise during the year and reverse in subsequent periods.


Mar 31, 2011

(a) Basis for Accounting

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles, Accounting Standards notifi ed under Section 211(3C) of the Companies Act, 1956 and the relevant provisions thereof.

(b) Revenue Recognition

(i) Sales comprises sale of goods and services, net of trade discounts.

(ii) Export incentive under the Duty Entitlement Pass Book Scheme has been recognised on the basis of credits afforded in the pass book.

(c) Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefi ts are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Profit and Loss Account of the year in which the related service is rendered.

(ii) Post employment benefi ts are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss Account for the year in which the employee has rendered services. The expense is recognised at the present value of the amount payable towards contributions. The present value is determined using the market yields of government bonds, at the balance sheet date, as the discounting rate.

(iii) Other long-term employee benefi ts are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss Account for the period in which the employee has rendered services. Estimated liability on account of long-term benefi ts is discounted to the current value, using the market yield on government bonds, as on the date of balance sheet.

(iv) Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long-term benefi ts are charged to the Profit and Loss Account.

(v) In respect of the Employee Separation Scheme (ESS), the increase in the net present value of the future liability for pension payable to employees, who have opted for retirement under the Employee Separation Scheme of the Company, is charged to the Profit and Loss Account.

(d) Fixed Assets

All fixed assets are valued at cost less depreciation. Pre-operation expenses including trial run expenses (net of revenue) are capitalised. Borrowing costs during the period of construction is added to the cost of eligible fixed assets.

Blast Furnace relining is capitalised. The written down value of the asset consisting of lining/relining expenditure embedded in the cost of the furnace is written off in the year of fresh relining.

(e) Depreciation

(I) Capital assets whose ownership does not vest in the Company is depreciated over their estimated useful life or five years, whichever is less.

(II) In respect of other assets, depreciation is provided on a straight line basis applying the rates specifi ed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 or rates based on estimated useful life whichever is higher. However, asset value upto ? 25,000 is fully depreciated in the year of acquisition. The details of estimated life for each category of asset is as under :

(i) Buildings — 30 to 62 years

(ii) Plant and Machinery — 4 to 21 years

(iii) Railway Sidings — 21 years

(iv) Vehicles and Aircraft — 5 to 18 years

(v) Furniture, Fixtures and office Equipment — 4 to 5 years

(vi) Intangibles (Computer Software) — 5 to 10 years

(vii) Development of property for development of mines and collieries are depreciated over the useful life of the mine or lease period whichever is less, subject to maximum of 10 years

(viii) Blast Furnace relining is depreciated over a period of 10 years (average expected life).

(ix) Freehold land is not depreciated.

(x) Leasehold land is amortised over the life of the lease.

(xi) Roads — 30 to 62 years

(f) Foreign Currency Transactions

Foreign Currency Transactions (FCT) and forward exchange contracts used to hedge FCT are initially recognised at the spot rate on the date of the transaction/contract. Monetary assets and liabilities relating to foreign currency transactions and forward exchange contracts remaining unsettled at the end of the year are translated at year end rates.

The company has opted for accounting the exchange differences arising on reporting of long term foreign currency monetary items in line with Companies (Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules 2009 relating to Accounting Standard 11 (AS-11) notifi ed by Government of India on 31st March, 2009. Accordingly the effect of exchange differences on foreign currency loans of the company is accounted by addition or deduction to the cost of the assets so far it relates to depreciable capital assets and in other cases by transfer to "Foreign Currency Monetary Items Translation Difference Account" to be amortised over the balance period of the long- term monetary items or period upto 31st March, 2011 whichever is earlier.

The differences in translation of FCT and forward exchange contracts used to hedge FCT (excluding the long term foreign currency monetary items accounted in line with Companies (Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules 2009 on Accounting Standard 11 notifi ed by Government of India on 31st March, 2009) and realised gains and losses, other than those relating to fixed assets are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account. The outstanding derivative contracts at the balance sheet date other than forward exchange contracts used to hedge FCT are valued by marking them to market and losses, if any, are recognised in the Profi t and Loss Account.

Exchange difference relating to monetary items that are in substance forming part of the Companys net investment in non integral foreign operations are accumulated in Foreign Exchange Fluctuation Reserve Account.

(g) Investments

Long term investments are carried at cost less provision for diminution other than temporary, if any, in value of such investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value.

(h) Inventories

Finished and semi-finished products produced and purchased by the Company are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Work-in-progress is carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Coal, iron ore and other raw materials produced and purchased by the Company are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Stores and spare parts are carried at cost. Necessary provision is made and charged to revenue in case of identifi ed obsolete and non-moving items.

Cost of inventories is generally ascertained on the weighted average basis. Work-in-progress and finished and semi-finished products are valued on full absorption cost basis.

(i) Relining Expenses

Relining expenses other than expenses on Blast Furnace relining are charged as an expense in the year in which they are incurred.

(j) Research and Development

Research and Development costs (other than cost of fixed assets acquired) are charged as an expense in the year in which they are incurred.

(k) Deferred Tax

Deferred Tax is accounted for by computing the tax effect of timing differences which arise during the year and reverse in subsequent periods.


Mar 31, 2010

(a) Basis for Accounting

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles, Accounting Standards notified under Section 211(3C) of the Companies Act, 1956 and the relevant provisions thereof.

(b) Revenue Recognition

(i) Sales comprises sale of goods and services, net of trade discounts.

(ii) Export incentive under the Duty Entitlement Pass Book Scheme has been recognised on the basis of credits afforded in the pass book.

(c) Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefits are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Profit and Loss Account of the year in which the related service is rendered.

(ii) Post employment benefits are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss Account for the year in which the employee has rendered services. The expense is recognised at the present value of the amount payable towards contributions. The present value is determined using the market yields of government bonds, at the balance sheet date, as the discounting rate.

(iii) Other long-term employee benefits are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss Account for the period in which the employee has rendered services. Estimated liability on account of long-term benefits is discounted to the current value, using the market yield on government bonds, as on the date of balance sheet.

(iv) Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long-term benefits are charged to the Profit and Loss Account.

(v) Miscellaneous Expenditure

In respect of the Employee Separation Scheme (ESS), net present value of the future liability for pension payable is amortised equally over five years or upto financial year ending 31st March, 2010, whichever is earlier.

The increase in the net present value of the future liability for pension payable to employees who have opted for retirement under the Employee Separation Scheme of the Company is charged to the Profit and Loss Account.

(d) Fixed Assets

All fixed assets are valued at cost less depreciation. Pre-operation expenses including trial run expenses (net of revenue) are capitalised. Borrowing costs during the period of construction is added to the cost of eligible fixed assets.

Blast Furnace relining is capitalised. The written down value of the asset consisting of lining/relining expenditure embedded in the cost of the furnace is written off in the year of fresh relining.

(e) Depreciation

(I) Capital assets whose ownership does not vest in the Company is depreciated over their estimated useful life or five years, whichever is less.

(II) In respect of other assets, depreciation is provided on a straight line basis applying the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 or rates based on estimated useful life whichever is higher. However, asset value upto Rs. 25,000 is fully depreciated in the year of acquisition. The details of estimated life for each category of asset is as under :

(i) Buildings — 30 to 62 years.

(ii) Plant and Machinery — 6 to 21 years.

(iii) Railway Sidings — 21 years.

(iv) Vehicles and Aircraft — 5 to 18 years.

(v) Furniture, Fixtures and Office Equipment — 5 years.

(vi) Intangibles (Computer Software) — 5 to 10 years.

(vii) Development of property for development of mines and collieries are depreciated over the useful life of the mine or lease period whichever is less, subject to maximum of 10 years.

(viii) Blast Furnace relining is depreciated over a period of 10 years (average expected life).

(ix) Freehold land is not depreciated.

(x) Leasehold land is amortised over the life of the lease.

(xi) Roads — 30 to 62 years.

(f) Foreign Currency Transactions

Foreign Currency Transactions (FCT) and forward exchange contracts used to hedge FCT are initially recognised at the spot rate on the date of the transaction/contract. Monetary assets and liabilities relating to foreign currency transactions and forward exchange contracts remaining unsettled at the end of the year are translated at year end rates.

The company has opted for accounting the exchange differences arising on reporting of long term foreign currency monetary items in line with Companies (Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules 2009 relating to Accounting Standard 11 (AS-11) notified by Government of India on 31st March, 2009. Accordingly the effect of exchange differences on foreign currency loans of the company is accounted by addition or deduction to the cost of the assets so far it relates to depreciable capital assets and in other cases by transfer to “Foreign Currency Monetary Items Translation Difference Account” to be amortised over the balance period of the long- term monetary items or period upto 31st March, 2011 whichever is earlier.

The differences in translation of FCT and forward exchange contracts used to hedge FCT (excluding the long term foreign currency monetary items accounted in line with Companies (Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules 2009 on Accounting Standard 11 notified by Government of India on 31st March, 2009) and realised gains and losses, other than those relating to fixed assets are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account. The outstanding derivative contracts at the balance sheet date other than forward exchange contracts used to hedge FCT are valued by marking them to market and losses, if any, are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.

Exchange difference relating to monetary items that are in substance forming part of the Company’s net investment in non integral foreign operations are accumulated in Foreign Exchange Fluctuation Reserve Account.

(g) Investments

Long term investments are carried at cost less provision for diminution other than temporary, if any, in value of such investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value.

(h) Inventories

Finished and semi-finished products produced and purchased by the Company are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Work-in-progress is carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Coal, iron ore and other raw materials produced and purchased by the Company are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Stores and spare parts are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value. Necessary provision is made and charged to revenue in case of identified obsolete and non-moving items.

Cost of inventories is generally ascertained on the ‘weighted average’ basis. Work-in-progress and finished and semi-finished products are valued on full absorption cost basis.

(i) Relining Expenses

Relining expenses other than expenses on Blast Furnace relining are charged as an expense in the year in which they are incurred.

(j) Research and Development

Research and Development costs (other than cost of fixed assets acquired) are charged as an expense in the year in which they are incurred.

(k) Deferred Tax

Deferred Tax is accounted for by computing the tax effect of timing differences which arise during the year and reverse in subsequent periods.

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