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Accounting Policies of Karnavati Finance Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

(a) Change in accounting policy

(i) Depreciation on fixed assets

Till the year ended 31st March, 2014, schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, prescribed requirements concerning depreciation of fixed assets. From the current year, Schedule XIV has been replaced by Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. The applicability of Schedule II has resulted in the following changes related to depreciation of fixed assets. Unless stated otherwise, the impact mentioned for the current year is likely to hold good for future years also.

(ii) Useful lives/depreciation rates

Till the year ended 31 March 2014, depreciation rates prescribed under Schedule XlV were treated as minimum rates and the company was not allowed to charge depreciation at lower rates even if such lower rates were justified by the estimated useful life of the asset. Schedule II to the Companies Act 2013 prescribes useful lives for fixed assets which, in many cases, are different from lives prescribed under the erstwhile Schedule XlV. However, Schedule II allows companies to use higher/ lower useful lives and residual values if such useful lives and residual values can be technically supported and justification for difference is disclosed in the financial statements.

Considering the applicability of Schedule II, the management has re-estimated useful lives and residual values of all its fixed assets. The management believes that depreciation rates currently used fairly reflect its estimate of the useful lives and residual values of fixed assets, though these rates in certain cases are different from lives prescribed under Schedule II. Hence, this change in accounting policy did not have any material impact on financial statements of the company.

(b) Use of estimates

The Preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management's best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in future periods.

(c) Tangible fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of fixed asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on existing fixed assets, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure, and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

(d) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets

Depreciation on fixed assets is calculated on a straight-line basis using the rates arrived at based on the useful lives under section 123 of the Companies Act, 2013

(e) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act,1961 enacted in India and tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where the company operates. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, reporting date. Current income tax relating to items recognized in equity and in the statement of profit & loss.

(f) Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividends and attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Partly paid equity shares are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent that they are entitled to participate in dividends relative to a fully paid equity share during the reporting period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events such as bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue, share split, and reverse share split (consolidation of shares) that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.

(g) Segment Reporting

The company is engaged primarily in the business of loan financing and accordingly there are no separate reportable segments as per Accounting Standard 17 dealing with Segment Reporting.

(h) Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the company and the revenue can be reliably measured. Further, in accordance with the guidelines issued by The Reserve Bank of India for Non-Banking Financial Companies, income on business assets classified as Non-performing Assets, is recognised on receipt basis.

Unrealized interest recognized as income in the previous period is reversed in the month in which the loan is classified as Non-performing. The following specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognized:

Income from Loans:

Interest Income from loan transactions is accounted for by applying the interest rate implicit in such contracts

(i) Provisions

A provision is recognized when the company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Where the company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognized as a separate asset but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to any provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement.

(j) Contingent Liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

(k) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

(l) Retirement and other employee benefits

Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund is a defined contribution scheme. The company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund. The company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as an expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the pre payment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.

(m) Impairment

The carrying value of assets/cash generating units at each balance sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognised, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor.

The company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations which are prepared separately for each of the company's cash-generating units to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations are generally covering a period of five years. For longer periods, a long term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year.

Impairment losses of continuing operations, including impairment on inventories, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss, except for previously revalued tangible fixed assets, where the revaluation was taken to revaluation reserve. In this case, the impairment is also recognized in the revaluation reserve up to the amount of any previous revaluation.

After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

An assessment is made at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that previously recognized impairment losses may no longer exist or may have decreased. If such indication exists, the company estimates the asset's or cash-generating unit's recoverable amount. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset's recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the statement of profit and loss unless the asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case the reversal is treated as a revaluation increase.