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Accounting Policies of Praj Industries Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2017

1 The corporate overview

Praj Industries Limited (''PIL'' or ''the company'') is a public company domiciled in India and incorporated under the provisions of Indian Companies Act. The company''s registered office is “Praj Tower", S. No. 274 and 275/2, Bhumkar Chowk-Hinjewadi road, Hinjewadi, Pune - 411057, Maharashtra, India. The company''s ordinary shares are listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange in India.

The company is engaged in the business of process and project engineering. The company caters to both domestic and international markets. Further, the company also provides design and engineering services.

2 Significant accounting policies

This note provides a list of the significant accounting policies adopted in the preparation of these financial statements. These policies have been consistently applied to all the years presented, unless otherwise stated.

2.1 Basis of preparation

The financial statements of the company comply in all material aspects with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under Section 133 of Companies Act, 2013 (the Act) [Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015] and other relevant provisions of the Act.

The financial statements up to the year ended 31 March 2016 were prepared in accordance with the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, notified under section 133 of the Act and other relevant provisions of the Act.

These are the company''s first financial statements prepared in accordance with Ind AS and ''Ind AS 101 - First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards'' (Ind AS 101) has been applied. The transition has been carried out from Indian GAAP which is considered as the Previous GAAP, as defined in Ind AS 101. An explanation of how the transition to Ind AS has affected the reported balance sheet, profit or loss and cash flows of the company is provided in note 42.

The financial statements were authorised for issue by the Board of Directors on 24 May 2017.

2.2 Basis of measurement

The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for the following items, which are measured on an alternative basis on each reporting date.

Items Measurement basis

Derivative financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss Fair value

Certain non-derivative financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss Fair value

Equity-settled share based payment transactions Grant date fair value

Defined benefit plan assets Fair value

2.3 Functional and presentation currency

These financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees (INR), which is the company''s functional currency. All amounts have been rounded-off to the nearest million, as per the requirements of Schedule III, unless otherwise stated.

2.4 Significant accounting judgments, estimates and assumptions

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenue, expenses, current assets, non-current assets, current liabilities, non-current liabilities and disclosure of the contingent liabilities at the end of each reporting period. Actual estimates may differ from these estimates.

Detailed information about each of these estimates and judgments is included in relevant notes.

The areas involving critical estimates and judgments are:

- Estimation of current tax expense and payable - Note 26

- Estimation of defined benefit obligation - Note 33

- Recognition of revenue - Note 29

- Recognition of deferred tax assets for carried forward tax losses - Note 26

- Impairment of trade receivables - Note 40

Estimation and underlying assumptions are reviewed on ongoing basis. Revisions to estimates are recognized prospectively.

2.5 Current versus non-current classification

The company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current / non-current classification.

An asset as current when it is:

- Expected to be realized or intended to sold or consumed in normal operating cycle;

- Held primarily for the purpose of trading;

- Expected to be realized within twelve months after the reporting period; or

- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period

All other assets are classified as non-current.

A liability is current when:

- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle;

- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading;

- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period; or

- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period All other liabilities are classified as non-current.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.

2.6 Property, plant and equipment

- Recognition and measurement

Items of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation and/or accumulated impairment loss, if any. The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment comprises its purchase price, including import duties and other non-refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use; any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price. Borrowing costs directly attributable to the construction of a qualifying asset are capitalized as part of the cost.

When parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment.

Property, plant and equipment under construction are disclosed as capital work-in-progress.

Advances paid towards the acquisition of property, plant and equipment outstanding at each reporting date are disclosed under ''Other non-current assets''.

- Subsequent costs

The cost of replacing a part of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognized in the carrying amount of the item if it is probable that the future economic benefits embodied within the part will flow to the company and its cost can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of the replaced part is derecognized. The costs of the day-to-day servicing of property, plant and equipment are recognized in the statement of profit and loss as incurred.

- Disposal

An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognized upon disposal or when no future benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Gains and losses on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment are determined by comparing the proceeds from disposal with the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment, and are recognized net within other income/ expenses in the statement of profit and loss.

- Depreciation

Depreciation is calculated over the depreciable amount, which is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its residual value. Depreciation is recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of each part of an item of property, plant and equipment as prescribed in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013, as assessed by the management of the company based on technical evaluation. Freehold land is not depreciated.

2.7 Intangible assets

- Recognition and measurement

Intangible assets are recognized when the asset is identifiable, is within the control of the company, it is probable that the future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the company and cost of the asset can be reliably measured.

Expenditure on research activities is recognized in the statement of profit and loss as incurred. Development expenditure is capitalized only if the expenditure can be measured reliably, the product or process is technically and commercially feasible, future economic benefits are probable and the company intends to and has sufficient resources to complete development and to use or sell the asset.

Intangible assets acquired by the company that have finite useful lives are measured at cost less accumulated amortization and any accumulated impairment losses. Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortized, but are tested for impairment annually, either individually or at the cash-generating unit level.

- Subsequent measurement

Subsequent expenditure is capitalized only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which it relates.

- Amortization

Amortization is calculated over the cost of the asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its residual value. Amortization is recognized in statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of intangible assets from the date that they are available for use, since this most closely reflects the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in the asset.

2.8 Investment property

Property that is held for long-term rental yields or for capital appreciation or both, and that is not occupied by the company, is classified as investment property.

Investment property is initially measured at cost, including related transaction costs. The cost of investment property includes its purchase price and directly attributable expenditure, if any. Subsequent expenditure is capitalized to the asset''s carrying amount only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with expenditure will flow to the company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All other repairs and maintenance costs are expensed when incurred.

Subsequent to the initial recognition, investment property is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment loss, if any. Depreciation on investment property has been provided in a manner that amortizes the cost of the assets over their estimated useful lives on straight line method as per the useful life prescribed under Schedule II to the Act. Investment property in the form of land is not depreciated.

Investment property is derecognized either when it is disposed off or permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefit is expected from its disposal. The difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset is recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period of de-recognition.

2.9 Impairment of non-financial assets

The company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset or cash generating unit (CGU) may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s or CGU''s fair value less costs of disposal or its value in use. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.

In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are considered.

An impairment loss is recognized if the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount.

Impairment losses are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. They are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the CGU, and then to reduce the carrying amounts of the other assets in the CGU on a pro rata basis.

An impairment loss in respect of goodwill is not reversed. For other assets, an impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset''s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortization, if no impairment loss had been recognized.

2.10 Inventories

Raw materials, components, stores and spares, work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost.

Cost of raw materials, components, stores and spares comprises cost of purchases. Cost of work-in-progress and finished goods comprises direct materials, direct labour and an appropriate proportion of variable and fixed overhead expenditure, the latter being allocated based on normal operating capacity. Cost of inventories also include all other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Costs are assigned to individual items of inventory based on weighted average basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

2.11 Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

2.12 Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made.

Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. Amounts included in revenue are inclusive of excise duty and net of returns, trade allowances, rebates, value added taxes and amounts collected on behalf of third parties.

-Contract revenue

Revenue from fixed price contracts is recognized when the outcome of the contract can be estimated reliably by reference to the percentage of completion of the contract on the reporting date. Percentage of completion is determined as a proportion of costs incurred-to-date to the total estimated contract costs. In respect of process technology and design and engineering contracts percentage of completion is measured with reference to the milestones specified in the contract, which in the view of the management reflects the work performed and to the extent it is reasonably certain of recovery.

Contract costs include costs that relate directly to the specific contract and costs that are attributable to the contract activity and allocable to the contract. Costs that cannot be attributed to contract activity are expensed when incurred.

When the final outcome of a contract cannot be reliably estimated, contract revenue is recognized only to the extent of costs incurred that are expected to be recoverable. The provision for expected loss is recognized immediately when it is probable that the total estimated contract costs will exceed total contract revenue.

Variations, claims and incentives are recognized as a part of contract revenue to the extent it is probable that they will result in revenue and are capable of being reliably measured.

Determination of revenues under the percentage of completion method necessarily involves making estimates by the company, some of which are of a technical nature, concerning, where relevant, the percentage of completion, costs to completion, the expected revenues from the project / activity and the foreseeable losses to completion.

Execution of contracts necessarily extends beyond accounting periods. Revision in costs and revenues estimated during the course of the contract are reflected in the accounting period in which the facts requiring the revision become known.

- Sale of goods and rendering of services

Revenue from sale of goods in the course of ordinary activities is recognized when property in the goods or all significant risks and rewards of their ownership are transferred to the customer and no significant uncertainty exists regarding the amount of the consideration that will be derived from the sale of the goods and regarding its collection.

Revenue from services is recognized as the related services are performed.

2.13 Other income

- Interest income

Interest income from debt instruments is recognized using effective interest rate method (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset or to the amortized cost of a financial liability.

- Dividends

Dividends are recognized in the statement of profit and loss only when the right to receive the payment is established, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the company, and the amount can be measured reliably.

- Export benefits

Export benefits in the form of Duty Draw Back / Focus Market Scheme (FMS) / Focus Product Scheme (FPS) / Merchandise Exports Incentive Scheme (MEIS) claims are recognized in the statement of profit and loss on receipts basis.

2.14 Foreign currency transactions and balances

Transactions in foreign currency are recorded at exchange rates prevailing at the date of transactions. Exchange differences arising on foreign exchange transactions settled during the year are recognized in the statement of profit and loss of the year.

Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies which are outstanding, as at the reporting period are translated at the closing exchange rates and the resultant exchange differences are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that are measured in terms of historical cost are translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

2.15 Employee benefits

- Short-term employee benefits

Employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short-term employee benefits and are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

- Post-employment benefits Defined contribution plans

Contributions to the provident fund and superannuation fund, which are defined contribution schemes, are recognized as an employee benefit expense in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the contribution is due.

Defined benefit plans

The employees'' gratuity scheme is a defined benefit plan. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plans is determined based on actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method, which recognizes each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation.

The obligation is measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows. The discount rates used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plans, is based on the market yields on government securities as at the reporting date, having maturity periods approximating to the terms of related obligations.

Re-measurements, comprising of actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling, excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability and the return on plan assets (excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability), are recognized immediately in the balance sheet with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through other comprehensive income (OCI) in the period in which they occur. Re-measurements are not reclassified to the statement of profit and loss in subsequent periods.

In case of funded plans, the fair value of the plan''s assets is reduced from the gross obligation under the defined benefit plans, to recognize the obligation on net basis.

When the benefits of the plan are changed or when a plan is curtailed, the resulting change in benefits that relates to past service or the gain or loss on curtailment is recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss. Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset. The company recognizes gains/ losses on settlement of a defined plan when the settlement occurs.

Other long-term employee benefits

The liabilities for earned leave are not expected to be settled wholly within twelve months after the end of the reporting period in which the employees render the related service. They are therefore measured as the present value of expected future payments to be made in respect of services provided by employees up to the end of the reporting period using the projected unit credit method as determined by actuarial valuation. The benefits are discounted using the market yields at the end of the reporting period that have terms approximating the terms of the related obligation. Re-measurements as a result of experience adjustments and change in actuarial assumptions are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. The obligations are presented as current liabilities in the balance sheet if the entity does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement for at least twelve months after the reporting period, regardless of when the actual settlement is expected to occur.

Termination benefits

Termination benefits are expensed at the earlier of when the company can no longer withdraw the offer of those benefits and when the company recognizes costs for a restructuring. If benefits are not expected to be settled wholly within 12 months of the reporting date, then they are discounted.

2.16 Share-based payments

The grant fair value of equity settled share based payment awards granted to employees is recognized as employee benefit expense with corresponding increase in equity. The total expense is recognized over the vesting period, which is the period over which all of the specified vesting conditions are required to be satisfied. At the end of each reporting period, the company revises its estimates of the number of options that are expected to vest based on the service and non-vesting conditions. It recognizes the impact of the revision to original estimates, if any, in the statement of profit and loss, with a corresponding adjustment to equity.

2.17 Leases

The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.

- Company as a lessee

A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the company is classified as a finance lease.

Finance leases are capitalized at the commencement of the lease at the inception date fair value of the leased asset or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized in finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.

A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.

Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless the payments to the lessor are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor''s expected inflationary cost increases or another systematic basis is available.

- Company as lessor

Leases in which the company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Rental income from operating lease is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease unless the payments to the lessor are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor''s expected inflationary cost increases or another systematic basis is available. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognized over the lease term on the same basis as rental income. Contingent rents are recognized as revenue in the period in which they are earned.

Leases are classified as finance leases when substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership transfer from the company to the lessee. Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recorded as receivables at the company''s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment outstanding in respect of the lease.

2.18 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing cost also includes exchange differences to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the borrowing costs.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized during the period of time that is required to complete and prepare the asset for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.

2.19 Income tax

Income tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. It is recognized in the statement of profit and loss except to the extent that it relates to a business combination, or items recognized directly in equity or in OCI.

- Current tax

Current tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted, at the reporting date in the country where the company operates and generates taxable income. Current tax assets and liabilities are offset only if there is a legally enforceable right to set it off the recognized amounts and it is intended to realize the asset and settle the liability on a net basis or simultaneously.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax. The company recognizes MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. The company reviews the ''MAT credit entitlement'' asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

- Deferred tax

Deferred tax is provided using the balance sheet method on temporary differences between the tax base of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable temporary differences, except:

- When the deferred tax liability arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss;

- Taxable temporary differences arising on the initial recognition of goodwill.

Deferred tax assets are recognized for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses. Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilised, except:

- When the deferred tax asset relating to the deductible temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilized. Unrecognized deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognized to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

Deferred tax relating to items recognized outside profit or loss is recognized outside profit or loss. Deferred tax items are recognized in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity.

In the situations where the company is entitled to a tax holiday under the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India or tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where it operates, no deferred tax (asset or liability) is recognized in respect of temporary differences which reverse during the tax holiday period, to the extent the company''s gross total income is subject to the deduction during the tax holiday period. Deferred tax in respect of timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period is recognized in the year in which the timing differences originate. However, the company restricts recognition of deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. For recognition of deferred taxes, the temporary differences which originate first are considered to reverse first.

2.20 Provisions and contingencies

A provision is recognized when the company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.

When the company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example, under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognized as a separate asset, but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to a provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement.

If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as a finance cost in the statement of profit and loss.

Contingent liability is disclosed in case of

- a present obligation arising from past events, when it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation.

- present obligation arising from past events, when no reliable estimate is possible

- a possible obligation arising from past events where the probability of outflow of resources is not remote.

Contingent asset is not recognized in the financial statements. A contingent asset is disclosed, where an inflow of economic benefits is probable.

Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date.

2.21 Earnings per share (EPS)

Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the profit for the year attributable to equity holders of the company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the financial year, adjusted for bonus elements in equity shares issued during the year and excluding treasury shares.

Diluted EPS adjust the figures used in the determination of basic EPS to consider

- The after-income tax effect of interest and other financing costs associated with dilutive potential equity shares, and

- The weighted average number of additional equity shares that would have been outstanding assuming the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares.

2.22 Fair value measurement

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:

- In the principal market for the asset or liability, or

- In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability.

The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the company. The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.

A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset considers a market participant''s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another.

The company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximizing the use of relevant observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs.

- Level 1 - Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

- Level 2 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable.

- Level 3 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable.

For assets and liabilities that are recognized in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorization (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.

For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the company has determined classes of assets and liabilities based on the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.

2.23 Financial instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

Financial assets Classification

The company classifies its financial assets in the following measurement categories:

- those to be measured subsequently at fair value (either through OCI, or through profit or loss);

- those measured at amortized cost.

The classification depends on the company''s business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual terms of cash flows.

For assets measured at fair value, gains and losses will either be recorded in the statement of profit and loss or OCI. For investments in debt instruments, this will depend on the business model in which investment is held. For investments in equity instruments, this will depend on whether the company has made an irrevocable election at the time of initial recognition to account for equity investment at fair value through OCI.

The company classifies debt investments when and only when its business model for managing those assets changes. Measurement

All financial assets are recognized initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Transaction costs of financial assets carried at fair value through profit or loss are expensed in the statement of profit and loss.

Debt instruments

Subsequent measurement of debt instruments depends on the company''s business model for managing the asset and cash flow characteristics of the asset. There are three measurement categories into which the company classifies its debt instruments:

Debt instruments at amortized cost

A ''debt instrument'' is measured at the amortized cost if both the following conditions are satisfied:

- The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and

- The contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.

A gain or loss on a debt investment that is subsequently measured at amortized cost and is not part of hedging relationship is recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized or impaired. Interest income from these financial assets is included in finance income using effective interest rate (EIR) method.

Debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows and for selling the financial assets, where the assets'' cash flows represent SPPI, are measured at FVTOCI. The movements in the carrying amount are recognized through OCI, except for the recognition of impairment gains and losses, interest revenue and foreign exchange gain or losses which are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. When the financial asset is derecognized, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in OCI is reclassified from equity to the statement of profit and loss and recognized in other gains / losses. Interest income from these financial assets is included in other income using EIR method.

Debt instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

Assets that do not meet the criteria for amortized cost or FVTOCI are measured at FVTPL. A gain or loss on debt instrument that is subsequently measured at FVTPL and is not a part of hedging relationship is recognized in the statement of profit and loss within other gains / losses in the period in which it arises. Interest income from these financial assets is included in other income.

Equity investments

All equity investments in the scope of ''Ind AS 109 - Financial instruments'' are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading are classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the company may make an irrevocable election to recognize subsequent changes in the fair value in OCI. The company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.

If the company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to the statement of profit and loss, even on sale of equity instrument.

Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

De-recognition

The company de-recognizes a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows in a transaction in which substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred or in which the company neither transfers nor retain substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership and it does not retain control of the financial asset.

Impairment of financial assets

The company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the assets carried at amortized cost and FVTOCI debt instruments. The impairment methodology applied depends on whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk. Note 40 details how the company determines whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk.

For trade receivables only, the company applies the simplified approach permitted by ''Ind AS 109 - Financial instruments'', which requires expected lifetime losses to be recognized from initial recognition of the receivables.

Non-derivative financial liabilities Recognition

The company initially recognizes borrowings, trade payables and related financial liabilities on the date on which they are originated. All other financial instruments (including regular-way purchases and sales of financial assets) are recognized on the trade date, which is the date on which the company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

Measurement

Non-derivative financial liabilities are initially recognized at fair value, net of transaction costs incurred. Subsequent to initial recognition, these liabilities are measured at amortized cost using EIR method.

De-recognition

A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the de-recognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the statement of profit or loss.

Financial guarantee contracts

Financial guarantee contracts are recognized as a financial liability at the time the guarantee is issued. The liability is initially measured at fair value and subsequently at the higher of the amount determined in accordance with ''Ind AS 37 - Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets'' and the amount initially recognized less cumulative amortization, where appropriate. The fair value of financial guarantees is determined as the present value of the difference in net cash flows between the contractual payments under the debt instrument and the payments that would be required without the guarantee, or the estimated amount that would be payable to a third party for assuming the obligations.

Offsetting of financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.

2.24 Cash dividend to equity holders

The company recognizes a liability to make cash distributions to equity holders when the distribution is authorized and the distribution is no longer at the discretion of the company. As per the corporate laws in India, a distribution is authorized when it is approved by the shareholders. A corresponding amount is recognized directly in equity.

2.25 Government grant

Government grants are recognized at their fair value when there is a reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and company will comply with all attached conditions.

Government grants relating to income are deferred and recognized in the statement of profit and loss over the period necessary to match them with costs that they are intended to compensate and presented within other income.

Government grants relating to purchase of property, plant and equipment are initially recognized as deferred income at fair value and subsequently recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a systematic basis over the useful life of the asset.

2.26 Recent accounting pronouncements Standards issued but not yet effective

On March 30, 2017, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendments) Rules, 2017, notifying amendments to Ind AS 7, ''Statement of cash flows'' and Ind AS 102, ''Share-based payment.'' These amendments are in accordance with the recent amendments made by International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) to IAS 7, ''Statement of cash flows'' and IFRS 2, ''Share-based payment,'' respectively.

Amendment to Ind AS 7: Statement of cash flows

The amendment to Ind AS 7 requires the entities to provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non-cash changes. These amendments are effective for annual periods beginning on or after April 1, 2017. Application of the amendments will result in additional disclosures provided by the company.

Amendment to Ind AS 102: Share-based payment

The amendment to Ind AS 102 address three main areas: the effects of vesting conditions on the measurement of a cash-settled share-based payment transaction; the classification of a share-based payment transaction with net settlement features for withholding tax obligations; and accounting where a modification to the terms and conditions of a share-based payment transaction changes its classification from cash settled to equity settled.

The amendments are effective for annual periods beginning on or after April 1, 2017. These amendments are not expected to have any impact on the company.


Mar 31, 2015

1.1 Basis of preparation of financial statements

The financial statements are prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("GAAP") in India under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis, and are in conformity with mandatory accounting standards, as prescribed under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (''Act'') read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014, the provisions of the Act (to the extent notified) and guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).

The Company has ascertained its operating cycle as twelve months for the purpose of current and non-current classification of assets and liabilities.

2.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

2.3 Revenue recognition

a) Contract revenue

Revenue from fixed price contracts is recognised when the outcome of the contract can be estimated reliably by reference to the percentage of completion of the contract on the Balance sheet date. Percentage of completion is determined as a proportion of costs incurred-to-date to the total estimated contract costs. In respect of process technology and design and engineering contracts percentage of completion is measured with reference to the milestones specified in the contract, which in the view of the management reflects the work performed and to the extent it is reasonably certain of recovery.

Contract costs include costs that relate directly to the specific contract and costs that are attributable to contract activity and allocable to the contract. Costs that cannot be attributed to contract activity are expensed when incurred.

When the final outcome of a contract cannot be reliably estimated, contract revenue is recognised only to the extent of costs incurred that are expected to be recoverable. Provision for expected loss is recognised immediately when it is probable that the total estimated contract costs will exceed total contract revenue.

Variations, claims and incentives are recognised as a part of contract revenue to the extent it is probable that they will result in revenue and are capable of being reliably measured.

Determination of revenues under the percentage of completion method necessarily involves making estimates by the Company, some of which are of a technical nature, concerning, where relevant, the percentage of completion, costs to completion, the expected revenues from the project/activity and the foreseeable losses to completion.

Execution of contracts necessarily extends beyond accounting periods. Revision in costs and revenues estimated during the course of the contract are reflected in the accounting period in which the facts requiring the revision become known.

b) Service revenue

Revenue from services is recognised as the related services are performed.

c) Product sales

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised on transfer of significant risks and rewards of ownership when goods are dispatched and the title passes to the customers, net of discounts and rebates granted. Sales are recorded exclusive of sales tax.

d) Interest and dividend income

Interest on deployment of surplus funds is recognised using the time proportion method based on the underlying interest rates.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.

e) Export benefits

Export benefits in the form of duty draw back/ DEPB claims etc. are recognised on receipt basis.

2.4 Tangible assets

Tangible assets are stated at historical cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalisation criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of tangible asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on existing tangible assets, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of tangible assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised.

2.5 Depreciation:

Depreciation on tangible assets is provided on straight-line basis over the useful lives of assets as prescribed in Schedule -II to the Companies Act, 2013, as assessed by the Management based on technical evaluation.

Building and other constructions on leasehold land are depreciated over the lease term or the useful life, whichever is shorter.

2.6 Intangible assets and amortisation

Intangible assets are recognised when the asset is identifiable, is within the control of the Company, it is probable that the future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the Company and cost of the asset can be reliably measured.

Acquired intangible assets consisting of technical know how, brand and software, are recorded at acquisition cost and amortised on straight-line basis based on the following useful lives, which in management''s estimate represents the period during which economic benefits will be derived from their use:

Asset Useful Life

Brand 10 Years

Technical Knowhow 5-10 Years

Software 5 Years

2.7 Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of the Company''s assets including intangible assets are reviewed at each Balance sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indications exist, the assets recoverable amount is estimated, as the higher of the net selling price and the value in use. An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount. If at the Balance sheet date, there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reinstated at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciable historical cost.

2.8 Investments

Investments, which are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments.

On initial recognition, all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

Current investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.

2.9 Inventories

Raw materials, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials, components and stores and spares is determined on a weighted average basis.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty and is determined on a weighted average basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

2.10 Foreign currency transactions Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are translated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date.

Non-monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

Forward Contracts

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortised and recognised as an expense/income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts, except the contracts which are long-term foreign currency monetary items, are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognised as income or as expense for the period.

2.11 Leases

Lease payment under an operating lease is recognised as an expense in the Profit and loss account on a straight line basis over the lease term.

2.12 Employee benefits

a) Short-term employee benefits

Employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short- term employee benefits and are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

b) Post employment benefits (defined benefit plans)

The employees'' gratuity scheme is a defined benefit plan. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined at each Balance sheet date based on an actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the Profit and loss account.

c) Post employment benefits (defined contribution plans)

Contributions to the provident fund and superannuation fund, which are defined contribution schemes, are recognised as an expense in the Profit and loss account in the period in which the contribution is due.

d) Long-term employee benefits

Long-term employee benefits comprise of compensated absences and other employee incentives. These are measured based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary at each Balance sheet date unless they are insignificant. Actuarial gains and losses and past service costs are recognised immediately in the Profit and loss account.

2.13 Provisions and Contingencies

Provision is recognised in the Balance sheet when, the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event; it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; and a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made. A disclosure by way of a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

2.14 Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current tax, deferred tax and refund on account of prior period taxes. Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for the earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred income tax relating to items recognised directly in equity is recognised in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognised for deductible timing differences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits.

In the situations where the Company is entitled to a tax holiday under the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India or tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where it operates, no deferred tax (asset or liability) is recognised in respect of timing differences which reverse during the tax holiday period, to the extent the Company''s gross total income is subject to the deduction during the tax holiday period. Deferred tax in respect of timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period is recognised in the year in which the timing differences originate. However, the Company restricts recognition of deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. For recognition of deferred taxes, the timing differences which originate first are considered to reverse first.

At each reporting date, the Company re-assesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognised deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set-off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax. The company recognises MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the Company recognises MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternative Tax under the Income- tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as "MAT Credit Entitlement." The Company reviews the "MAT credit entitlement" asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

2.15 Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period as reduced by number of shares bought back, if any. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events such as bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue, share split, and reverse share split (consolidation of shares) that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

2.16 Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.


Mar 31, 2013

1.1 Basis of preparation of fnancial statements

The fnancial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in India (Indian GAAP). The Company has prepared these fnancial statements to comply in all material respects with the accounting standards notifed under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The fnancial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and under the historical cost convention.

1.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of fnancial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

1.3 Revenue recognition

a) Contract revenue

Revenue from fxed price contracts is recognised when the outcome of the contract can be estimated reliably by reference to the percentage of completion of the contract on the Balance sheet date. Percentage of completion is determined as a proportion of costs incurred-to-date to the total estimated contract costs. In respect of process technology and design and engineering contracts percentage of completion is measured with reference to the milestones specifed in the contract, which in the view of the management refects the work performed and to the extent it is reasonably certain of recovery.

Contract costs include costs that relate directly to the specifc contract and costs that are attributable to contract activity and allocable to the contract. Costs that cannot be attributed to contract activity are expensed when incurred.

When the fnal outcome of a contract cannot be reliably estimated, contract revenue is recognised only to the extent of costs incurred that are expected to be recoverable. Provision for expected loss is recognised immediately when it is probable that the total estimated contract costs will exceed total contract revenue.

Variations, claims and incentives are recognised as a part of contract revenue to the extent it is probable that they will result in revenue and are capable of being reliably measured.

Determination of revenues under the percentage of completion method necessarily involves making estimates by the Company, some of which are of a technical nature, concerning, where relevant, the percentage of completion, costs to completion, the expected revenues from the project/activity and the foreseeable losses to completion.

Execution of contracts necessarily extends beyond accounting periods. Revision in costs and revenues estimated during the course of the contract are refected in the accounting period in which the facts requiring the revision become known.

b) Service revenue

Revenue from services is recognised as the related services are performed.

c) Product sales

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised on transfer of signifcant risks and rewards of ownership when goods are dispatched and the title passes to the customers, net of discounts and rebates granted. Sales are recorded exclusive of sales tax.

d) Interest and dividend income

Interest on deployment of surplus funds is recognised using the time proportion method based on the underlying interest rates.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.

e) Export benefts

Export benefts in the form of duty draw back/ DEPB claims etc. are recognised on receipt basis.

1.4 Tangible assets

Tangible assets are stated at historical cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalisation criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of tangible asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefts from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on existing tangible assets, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of proft and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of tangible assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the statement of proft and loss when the asset is derecognised.

1.5 Depreciation:

Depreciation on tangible assets is calculated on a straight-line basis using the rates arrived at based on the useful lives estimated by the management, or those prescribed under the Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, whichever is higher.

Assets costing individually Rs. 5,000 or less are depreciated at the rate of 100%.

Building and other constructions on leasehold land are depreciated over the lease term or the useful life, whichever is shorter.

1.6 Intangible assets and amortisation

Intangible assets are recognised when the asset is identifable, is within the control of the Company, it is probable that the future economic benefts that are attributable to the asset will fow to the Company and cost of the asset can be reliably measured.

Acquired intangible assets consisting of technical know how, brand and software, are recorded at acquisition cost and amortised on straight-line basis based on the following useful lives, which in management''s estimate represents the period during which economic benefts will be derived from their use:

1.7 Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of the Company''s assets including intangible assets are reviewed at each Balance sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indications exist, the assets recoverable amount is estimated, as the higher of the net selling price and the value in use. An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount. If at the Balance sheet date, there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reinstated at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciable historical cost.

1.8 Investments

Investments, which are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classifed as current investments. All other investments are classifed as long-term investments.

On initial recognition, all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

Current investments are carried in the fnancial statements at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of proft and loss.

1.9 Inventories

Raw materials, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the fnished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials, components and stores and spares is determined on a weighted average basis.

Work-in-progress and fnished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of fnished goods includes excise duty and is determined on a weighted average basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

1.10 Foreign currency transactions

Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are translated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date.

Non-monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

Forward Contracts

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortized and recognised as an expense/income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts, except the contracts which are long-term foreign currency monetary items, are recognised in the statement of proft and loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any proft or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognised as income or as expense for the period.

1.11 Leases

Lease payment under an operating lease is recognised as an expense in the Proft and loss account on a straight line basis over the lease term.

1.12 Employee benefts

a) Short-term employee benefts

Employee benefts payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classifed as short-term employee benefts and are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

b) Post employment benefts (defned beneft plans)

The employees'' gratuity scheme is a defned beneft plan. The present value of the obligation under such defned beneft plan is determined at each Balance sheet date based on an actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the Proft and loss account.

c) Post employment benefts (defned contribution plans)

Contributions to the provident fund and superannuation fund, which are defned contribution schemes, are recognised as an expense in the Proft and loss account in the period in which the contribution is due.

d) Long-term employee benefts

Long-term employee benefts comprise of compensated absences and other employee incentives. These are measured based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary at each Balance sheet date unless they are insignifcant. Actuarial gains and losses and past service costs are recognised immediately in the Proft and loss account.

1.13 Provisions and Contingencies

Provision is recognised in the Balance sheet when, the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event; it is probable that an outfow of economic benefts will be required to settle the obligation; and a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made. A disclosure by way of a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outfow of resources. Where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that the likelihood of outfow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

1.14 Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current Income Tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961.

Deferred income taxes refect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for the earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred income tax relating to items recognised directly in equity is recognised in equity and not in the statement of proft and loss.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognised for deductible timing differences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that suffcient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profts.

In the situations where the Company is entitled to a tax holiday under the Income Tax Act, 1961 enacted in India or tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where it operates, no deferred tax (asset or liability) is recognised in respect of timing differences which reverse during the tax holiday period, to the extent the Company''s gross total income is subject to the deduction during the tax holiday period. Deferred tax in respect of timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period is recognised in the year in which the timing differences originate. However, the company restricts recognition of deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that suffcient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. For recognition of deferred taxes, the timing differences which originate frst are considered to reverse frst.

At each reporting date, the Company re-assesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognised deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that suffcient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that suffcient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that suffcient future taxable income will be available.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set-off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of proft and loss as current tax. The Company recognises MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specifed period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the Company recognizes MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternative Tax under the Income Tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of proft and loss and shown as “MAT Credit Entitlement.” The Company reviews the “MAT credit entitlement” asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the Company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specifed period.

1.15 Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net proft or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period as reduced by number of shares bought back, if any. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events such as bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue, share split, and reverse share split (consolidation of shares) that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net proft or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

1.16 Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash fow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.


Mar 31, 2012

1.1 Basis of preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in India (Indian GAAP). The Company has prepared these financial statements to comply in all material respects with the accounting standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and under the historical cost convention.

1.2 Presentation and disclosure of financial statements

During the year ended 31st March, 2012, the revised Schedule VI notified under the Companies Act 1956, has become applicable to the Company, for preparation and presentation of its financial statements. The adoption of revised Schedule VI does not impact recognition and measurement principles followed for preparation of financial statements. However, it has significant impact on presentation and disclosures made in the financial statements. The Company has also reclassified the previous year figures in accordance with the requirements applicable in the current year.

1.3 Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments' estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management's best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

1.4 Revenue recognition

a) Contract revenue

Revenue from fixed price contracts is recognized when the outcome of the contract can be estimated reliably by reference to the percentage of completion of the contract on the Balance sheet date. Percentage of completion is determined as a proportion of costs incurred-to-date to the total estimated contract costs. In respect of process technology and design and engineering contracts percentage of completion is measured with reference to the milestones specified in the contract, which in the view of the management reflects the work performed and to the extent it is reasonably certain of recovery.

Contract costs include costs that relate directly to the specific contract and costs that are attributable to contract activity and allocable to the contract. Costs that cannot be attributed to contract activity are expensed when incurred.

When the final outcome of a contract cannot be reliably estimated, contract revenue is recognized only to the extent of costs incurred that are expected to be recoverable. Provision for expected loss is recognized immediately when it is probable that the total estimated contract costs will exceed total contract revenue.

Variations, claims and incentives are recognized as a part of contract revenue to the extent it is probable that they will result in revenue and are capable of being reliably measured.

Determination of revenues under the percentage of completion method necessarily involves making estimates by the Company, some of which are of a technical nature, concerning, where relevant, the percentage of completion, costs to completion, the expected revenues from the project/activity and the foreseeable losses to completion.

Execution of contracts necessarily extends beyond accounting periods. Revision in costs and revenues estimated during the course of the contract are reflected in the accounting period in which the facts requiring the revision become known.

b) Service revenue

Revenue from services is recognized as the related services are performed.

c) Product sales

Revenue from sale of goods is recognized on transfer of significant risks and rewards of ownership when goods are dispatched and the title passes to the customers, net of discounts and rebates granted. Sales are recorded exclusive of sales tax.

d) Interest and dividend income

Interest on deployment of surplus funds is recognized using the time proportion method based on the underlying interest rates.

Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive payment is established.

e) Export benefits

Export benefits in the form of duty draw back/ DEPB claims etc. are recognized on receipt basis.

1.5 Tangible assets

Tangible assets are stated at historical cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of tangible asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on existing tangible assets, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of tangible assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

1.6 Depreciation:

Depreciation on tangible assets is calculated on a straight-line basis using the rates arrived at based on the useful lives estimated by the management, or those prescribed under the Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, whichever is higher.

Assets costing individually Rs 5,000 or less are depreciated at the rate of 100%.

Building and other constructions on leasehold land are depreciated over the lease term or the useful life, whichever is shorter.

1.7 Intangible assets and amortization

Intangible assets are recognized when the asset is identifiable, is within the control of the Company, it is probable that the future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the Company and cost of the asset can be reliably measured.

Acquired intangible assets consisting of technical know how, brand and software, are recorded at acquisition cost and amortized on straight-line basis based on the following useful lives, which in management's estimate represents the period during which economic benefits will be derived from their use:

1.8 Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of the Company's assets including intangible assets are reviewed at each Balance sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indications exist, the assets recoverable amount is estimated, as the higher of the net selling price and the value in use. An impairment loss is recognized whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount. If at the Balance sheet date, there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reinstated at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciable historical cost.

1.9 Investments

Investments, which are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments.

On initial recognition, all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

Current investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.

1.10 Inventories

Raw materials, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials, components and stores and spares is determined on a weighted average basis.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and lab our and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty and is determined on a weighted average basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

1.11 Foreign currency transactions

Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are translated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date.

Non-monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

Forward Contracts

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is a mortised and recognized as an expense/income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts, except the contracts which are long-term foreign currency monetary items, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognized as income or as expense for the period.

1.12 Leases

Lease payment under an operating lease is recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the lease term.

1.13 Employee benefits

a) Short-term employee benefits

Employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short-term employee benefits and are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

b) Post employment benefits (defined benefit plans)

The employees' gratuity scheme is a defined benefit plan. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined at each Balance sheet date based on an actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

c) Post employment benefits (defined contribution plans)

Contributions to the provident fund and superannuation fund, which are defined contribution schemes, are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the contribution is due.

d) Long-term employee benefits

Long-term employee benefits comprise of compensated absences and other employee incentives. These are measured based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary at each Balance sheet date unless they are insignificant. Actuarial gains and losses and past service costs are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.14 Provisions and Contingencies

Provision is recognized in the Balance sheet when, the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event; it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; and a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made. A disclosure by way of a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

1.15 Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for the earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred income tax relating to items recognised directly in equity is recognised in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognised for deductible timing differences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits.

In the situations where the Company is entitled to a tax holiday under the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India or tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where it operates, no deferred tax (asset or liability) is recognized in respect of timing differences which reverse during the tax holiday period, to the extent the Company's gross total income is subject to the deduction during the tax holiday period. Deferred tax in respect of timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period is recognised in the year in which the timing differences originate. However, the company restricts recognition of deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. For recognition of deferred taxes, the timing differences which originate first are considered to reverse first.

At each reporting date, the Company re-assesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognized deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set-off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax. The Company recognizes MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the Company recognises MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternate Tax under the Income Tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as "MAT Credit Entitlement." The Company reviews the "MAT credit entitlement" asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the Company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

1.16 Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period as reduced by number of shares bought back, if any. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events such as bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue, share split, and reverse share split (consolidation of shares) that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

1.17 Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

b) Terms/ Rights attached to equity shares:

The Company has only one class of equity shares having a par value of Rs 2 per share. Each holder of the equity shares is entitled to one vote per share. The Company declares and pays dividend in Indian rupees. The dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is subject to the approval of the shareholders in the ensuing Annual General Meeting.

During the year ended 31st March, 2012, the amount of per share dividend recognised as distributed to equity shareholders was Rs 1.62 (31st March, 2011 Rs 1.26).

In the event of liquidation of the Company, the holders of equity shares will be entitled to receive remaining assets of the company after distributing all preferential amounts.

c) Shares held by holding/ultimate holding company and/or their subsidiaries/associates:


Mar 31, 2011

1.1 Basis of preparation of financial statements

The financial statements have been prepared and presented under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in India and comply with the Accounting Standards ("AS") prescribed in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and with the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956, to the extent applicable.

1.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements. Actual results may differ from those estimates. Any revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively in current and future periods.

1.3 Revenue recognition

a) Contract revenue

Revenue from fixed price contracts is recognised when the outcome of the contract can be estimated reliably by reference to the percentage of completion of the contract on the Balance sheet date. Percentage of completion is determined as a proportion of costs incurred-to-date to the total estimated contract costs. In respect of process technology and design and engineering contracts percentage of completion is measured with reference to the milestones specifi ed in the contract, which in the view of the management refl ects the work performed and to the extent it is reasonably certain of recovery.

Contract costs include costs that relate directly to the specific contract and costs that are attributable to contract activity and allocable to the contract. Costs that cannot be attributed to contract activity are expensed when incurred.

When the fi nal outcome of a contract cannot be reliably estimated, contract revenue is recognised only to the extent of costs incurred that are expected to be recoverable. Provision for expected loss is recognised immediately when it is probable that the total estimated contract costs will exceed total contract revenue.

Variations, claims and incentives are recognised as a part of contract revenue to the extent it is probable that they will result in revenue and are capable of being reliably measured.

Determination of revenues under the percentage of completion method necessarily involves making estimates by the Company, some of which are of a technical nature, concerning, where relevant, the percentage of completion, costs to completion, the expected revenues from the project / activity and the foreseeable losses to completion.

Execution of contracts necessarily extends beyond accounting periods. Revision in costs and revenues estimated during the course of the contract are refl ected in the accounting period in which the facts requiring the revision become known.

b) Service revenue

Revenue from services is recognised as the related services are performed.

c) Product sales

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised on transfer of signifi cant risks and rewards of ownership when goods are dispatched and the title passes to the customers, net of discounts and rebates granted. Sales are recorded exclusive of sales tax.

d) Interest and dividend income

Interest on deployment of surplus funds is recognised using the time proportion method based on the underlying interest rates.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.

1.4 Fixed assets and depreciation

Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated depreciation. The cost of acquisition includes inward freight, duties, taxes and other directly attributable expenses.

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on the straight-line method pro-rata to the period of use. The rates of depreciation prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 have been adopted by the Company, which in the view of the management refl ects the useful life of the related fixed asset.

Assets costing individually ` 5,000 or less are depreciated at the rate of 100%. Building and other constructions on leasehold land are depreciated over the lease term or the useful life, whichever is shorter. Items of fixed assets that have been retired from active use and are held for disposal are stated at the lower of their net book value and estimated net realisable value and are disclosed separately in the financial statements.

Capital work-in-progress includes the cost of fixed assets that are not ready for intended use at the Balance sheet date and advances paid to acquire capital assets before the Balance sheet date.

1.5 Intangible assets and amortisation

Intangible assets are recognised when the asset is identifiable, is within the control of the Company, it is probable that the future economic benefi ts that are attributable to the asset will fl ow to the Company and cost of the asset can be reliably measured.

Acquired intangible assets consisting of technical know how, brand and software, are recorded at acquisition cost and amortised on straight-line basis based on the following useful lives, which in managements estimate represents the period during which economic benefi ts will be derived from their use:

1.6 Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of the Companys assets including intangible assets are reviewed at each Balance sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indications exist, the assets recoverable amount is estimated, as the higher of the net selling price and the value in use. An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount. If at the Balance sheet date, there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reinstated at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciable historical cost.

1.7 Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investment is made are classifi ed as current investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value, which is determined for each individual investment. Cost includes related expenses such as commission / brokerages etc.

Long-term investments are carried at cost less any other than temporary diminution in value, determined separately for each individual investment.

Profi t or loss on sale of investments is determined on the basis of weighted average carrying amount of investments disposed off.

1.8 Inventories

Inventories are stated at lower of cost and net realisable value. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling expenses. The cost is determined on the basis of the weighted average method and includes expenditure in acquiring the inventories and bringing them to their present location and condition. In the case of manufactured inventories and work in progress, cost includes an appropriate share of labour and overheads.

1.9 Foreign currency transactions

Transactions denominated in foreign currency are recorded at rates that approximate the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the respective transaction.

Exchange differences arising on foreign exchange transactions settled during the year are recognized in the Profi t and loss account of the year. Monetary assets and liabilities in foreign currency, which are outstanding as at the year-end, are translated at the year end closing exchange rate and the resultant exchange differences are recognized in the Profi t and loss account.

The premium or discount arising at the inception of the forward exchange contracts related to underlying receivables and payables are amortised as an expense or income recognised over the period of the contracts. Gains or losses on renewal or cancellation of foreign exchange forward contracts are recognised as income or expense for the period.

1.10 Leases

Lease payment under an operating lease is recognised as an expense in the Profi t and loss account on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

1.11 Employee benefi ts

a) Short-term employee benefi ts

Employee benefi ts payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classifi ed as short-term employee benefi ts and are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

b) Post employment benefi ts (Defi ned Benefi t Plans)

The employees gratuity scheme is a defi ned benefi t plan. The present value of the obligation under such defi ned benefi t plan is determined at each Balance sheet date based on an actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the Profi t and loss account.

c) Post employment benefi ts (Defi ned Contribution Plans)

Contributions to the provident fund and superannuation fund, which are defi ned contribution schemes, are recognised as an expense in the Profi t and loss account in the period in which the contribution is due.

d) Long-term employee benefi ts

Long-term employee benefi ts comprise of compensated absences and other employee incentives. These are measured based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary at each Balance sheet date unless they are insignifi cant. Actuarial gains and losses and past service costs are recognised immediately in the Profi t and loss account.

1.12 Provisions and Contingencies

Provision is recognised in the Balance sheet when, the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event; it is probable that an outfl ow of economic benefi ts will be required to settle the obligation; and a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made. A disclosure by way of a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outfl ow of resources. Where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that the likelihood of outfl ow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

1.13 Income taxes

Income-tax comprises of current tax and fringe benefi t tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the income-tax law) and deferred tax (refl ecting the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the year). The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the Balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that they will be realised in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance sheet date and written down or written up to refl ect the amount that is reasonably / virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realised.

Timing differences, which reverse within the tax holiday period, do not result in tax consequence and therefore no deferred taxes are recognised in respect of the same. For this purpose, the timing differences, which originate fi rst, are considered to reverse fi rst.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the company will pay income tax higher than that computed under MAT, during the period that MAT is permitted to be set-off under the Income Tax Act, 1961 (specifi ed period). In the year in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognised as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note issued by ICAI, the said asset is created by way of credit to the Profi t and Loss account and known as MAT entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each Balance Sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT credit entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that the Company will pay income tax higher than MAT during the specifi ed period.

1.14 Earnings per share

In determining earnings per share, the Company considers the net profi t after tax and includes the post tax effect of any extra-ordinary / exceptional item. The number of shares used in computing basic earnings per share is the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year. The number of shares used in computing diluted earnings per share comprises the weighted average shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share, and also the weighted average number of equity shares that could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. The diluted potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable, had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. the average market value of the outstanding shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as of the beginning of the period, unless issued at a later date. The number of shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted for any stock splits and issues of bonus shares effected prior to the approval of the financial statements by the Board of Directors.


Mar 31, 2010

1.1 Basis of preparation of financial statements

The financial statements have been prepared and presented under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in India and comply with the Accounting Standards (‘AS’) prescribed in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and with the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956, to the extent applicable.

1.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements. Actual results may differ from those estimates. Any revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively in current and future periods.

1.3 Revenue recognition

a) Contract revenue

Revenue from fixed price contracts is recognised when the outcome of the contract can be estimated reliably by reference to the percentage of completion of the contract on the Balance sheet date. Percentage of completion is determined as a proportion of costs incurred-to-date to the total estimated contract costs. In respect of process technology and design and engineering contracts percentage of completion is measured with reference to the milestones specified in the contract, which in the view of the management reflects the work performed and to the extent it is reasonably certain of recovery.

Contract costs include costs that relate directly to the specific contract and costs that are attributable to contract activity and allocable to the contract. Costs that cannot be attributed to contract activity are expensed when incurred.

When the final outcome of a contract cannot be reliably estimated, contract revenue is recognised only to the extent of costs incurred that are expected to be recoverable. Provision for expected loss is recognised immediately when it is probable that the total estimated contract costs will exceed total contract revenue.

Variations, claims and incentives are recognised as a part of contract revenue to the extent it is probable that they will result in revenue and are capable of being reliably measured.

b) Service revenue

Revenue from services is recognised as the related services are performed.

c) Product sales

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised on transfer of significant risks and rewards of ownership when goods are dispatched and the title passes to the customers, net of discounts and rebates granted. Sales are recorded exclusive of sales tax.

d) Interest and dividend income

Interest on deployment of surplus funds is recognised using the time proportion method based on the underlying interest rates.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.

1.4 Fixed assets and depreciation

Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated depreciation. The cost of acquisition includes inward freight, duties, taxes and other directly attributable expenses.

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on the straight-line method pro-rata to the period of use. The rates of depreciation prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 have been adopted by the Company, which in the view of the management reflects the useful life of the related fixed asset.

Assets costing individually Rs. 5,000 or less are depreciated at the rate of 100%. Building and other constructions on leasehold

land are depreciated over the lease term or the useful life, whichever is shorter. Items of fixed assets that have been retired from active use and are held for disposal are stated at the lower of their net book value and estimated net realisable value and are disclosed separately in the financial statements.

Capital work-in-progress includes the cost of fixed assets that are not ready for intended use at the Balance Sheet date and advances paid to acquire capital assets before the Balance Sheet date.

1.5 Intangible assets and amortisation

Intangible assets are recognised when the asset is identifiable, is within the control of the Company, it is probable that the future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the Company and cost of the asset can be reliably measured.

Acquired intangible assets consisting of technical know-how, brand and software, are recorded at acquisition cost and amortised on straight-line basis based on the following useful lives, which in management’s estimate represents the period during which economic benefits will be derived from their use:

Asset Useful life

Brand 10 years

Technical know-how 5-10 years

Software 5 years

1.6 Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of the Company’s assets including intangible assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indications exist, the assets recoverable amount is estimated, as the higher of the net selling price and the value in use. An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount. If at the Balance Sheet date, there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reinstated at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciable historical cost.

1.7 Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investment is made are classified as current investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value, which is determined for each individual investment. Cost includes related expenses such as commission / brokerages etc.

Long-term investments are carried at cost less any other than temporary diminution in value, determined separately for each individual investment.

Profit or loss on sale of investments is determined on the basis of weighted average carrying amount of investments disposed off.

1.8 Inventories

Inventories are stated at lower of cost and net realisable value. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling expenses. The cost is determined on the basis of the weighted average method and includes expenditure in acquiring the inventories and bringing them to their present location and condition. In the case of manufactured inventories and work-in-progress, cost includes an appropriate share of labour and overheads.

1.9 Foreign currency transactions

Transactions denominated in foreign currency are recorded at rates that approximate the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the respective transaction.

Exchange differences arising on foreign exchange transactions settled during the year are recognized in the Profit and Loss account of the year. Monetary assets and liabilities in foreign currency, which are outstanding as at the year-end, are translated at the year end closing exchange rate and the resultant exchange differences are recognized in the Profit and Loss account.

The premium or discount arising at the inception of the forward exchange contracts related to underlying receivables and payables are amortised as an expense or income recognised over the period of the contracts. Gains or losses on renewal or cancellation of foreign exchange forward contracts are recognised as income or expense for the period.

1.10 Leases

Lease payment under an operating lease is recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss account on a straightline basis over the lease term.

1.11 Employee benefits

a) Short-term employee benefits

Employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short-term employee benefits and are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

b) Post employment benefits (defined benefit plans)

The employees’ gratuity scheme is a defined benefit plan. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined at each Balance Sheet date based on an actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the Profit and Loss account.

c) Post employment benefits (defined contribution plans)

Contributions to the provident fund and superannuation fund, which are defined contribution schemes, are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss account in the period in which the contribution is due.

d) Long-term employee benefits

Long-term employee benefits comprise of compensated absences and other employee incentives. These are measured based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary at each Balance sheet date unless they are insignificant. Actuarial gains and losses and past service costs are recognised immediately in the Profit and loss account.

1.12 Provisions and contingencies

Provision is recognised in the Balance Sheet when, the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event; it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; and a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made. A disclosure by way of a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

1.13 Income taxes

Income-tax comprises of current tax and fringe benefit tax (i.e., amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the income-tax law) and deferred tax (reflecting the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the year). The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that they will be realised in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and written down or written-up to reflect the amount that is reasonably/virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realised.

Timing differences, which reverse within the tax holiday period, do not result in tax consequence and therefore no deferred taxes are recognised in respect of the same. For this purpose, the timing differences, which originate first, are considered to reverse first.

1.14 Earnings per share

In determining earnings per share, the Company considers the net profit after tax and includes the post tax effect of any extra-ordinary / exceptional item. The number of shares used in computing basic earnings per share is the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year. The number of shares used in computing diluted earnings per share comprises the weighted average shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share, and also the weighted average number of equity shares that could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. The diluted potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable, had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e., the average market value of the outstanding shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as of the beginning of the period, unless issued at a later date. The number of shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted for any stock splits and issues of bonus shares effected prior to the approval of the financial statements by the Board of Directors.

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